Instruction Set
Contents
 Introduction
 Understanding the instruction summaries

The Instructions
 AA[] Adjust Angle
 ABS[] ABSolute value
 ADD[] ADD
 ALIGNPTS[] ALIGN Points
 ALIGNRP[] ALIGN to Reference Point
 AND[] logical AND
 CALL[] CALL function
 CEILING[] CEILING
 CINDEX[] Copy the INDEXed element to the top of the stack
 CLEAR[] CLEAR the stack
 DEBUG[] DEBUG call
 DELTAC1[] DELTA exception C1
 DELTAC2[] DELTA exception C2
 DELTAC3[] DELTA exception C3
 DELTAP1[] DELTA exception P1
 DELTAP2[] DELTA exception P2
 DELTAP3[] DELTA exception P3
 DEPTH[] DEPTH of the stack
 DIV[] DIVide
 DUP[] DUPlicate top stack element
 EIF[] End IF
 ELSE[] ELSE clause
 ENDF[] END Function definition
 EQ[] EQual
 EVEN[] EVEN
 FDEF[] Function DEFinition
 FLIPOFF[] set the auto FLIP Boolean to OFF
 FLIPON[] set the auto FLIP Boolean to ON
 FLIPPT[] FLIP PoinT
 FLIPRGOFF[] FLIP RanGe OFF
 FLIPRGON[] FLIP RanGe ON
 FLOOR[] FLOOR
 GC[a] Get Coordinate projected onto the projection vector
 GETINFO[] GET INFOrmation
 GFV[] Get Freedom Vector
 GPV[] Get Projection Vector
 GT[] Greater Than
 GTEQ[] Greater Than or EQual
 IDEF[] Instruction DEFinition
 IF[] IF test
 INSTCTRL INSTRuction execution ConTRoL
 IP[] Interpolate Point
 ISECT[] moves point p to the InterSECTion of two lines
 IUP[a] Interpolate Untouched Points through the outline
 JMPR JuMP Relative
 JROF[] Jump Relative On False
 JROT[] Jump Relative On True
 LOOPCALL[] LOOP and CALL function
 LT[] Less Than
 LTEQ[] Less Than or Equal
 MAX[] MAXimum of top two stack elements
 MD[a] Measure Distance
 MDAP[a] Move Direct Absolute Point
 MDRP[abcde] Move Direct Relative Point
 MIAP[a] Move Indirect Absolute Point
 MIN[] MINimum of top two stack elements
 MINDEX[] Move the INDEXed element to the top of the stack
 MIRP[abcde] Move Indirect Relative Point
 MPPEM[] Measure Pixels Per EM
 MPS[] Measure Point Size
 MSIRP[a] Move Stack Indirect Relative Point
 MUL[] MULtiply
 NEG[] NEGate
 NEQ[] Not EQual
 NOT[] logical NOT
 NPUSHB[] PUSH N Bytes
 NPUSHW[] PUSH N Words
 NROUND[ab] No ROUNDing of value
 ODD[] ODD
 OR[] logical OR
 POP[] POP top stack element
 PUSHB[abc] PUSH Bytes
 PUSHW[abc] PUSH Words
 RCVT[] Read Control Value Table entry
 RTDG[] Round Down To Grid
 ROFF[] Round OFF
 ROLL ROLL the top three stack elements
 ROUND[ab] ROUND value
 RS[] Read Store
 RTDG[] Round To Double Grid
 RTG[] Round To Grid
 RTHG[] Round To Half Grid
 RUTG[] Round Up To Grid
 S45ROUND[] Super ROUND 45 degrees
 SANGW[] Set Angle Weight
 SCANCTRL[] SCAN conversion ConTRoL
 SCANTYPE[] SCANTYPE
 SCFS[] Sets Coordinate From the Stack using projection vector and freedom vector
 SCVTCI[] Set Control Value Table CutIn
 SDB[] Set Delta Base in the graphics state
 SDPVTL[a] Set Dual Projection Vector To Line
 SDS[] Set Delta Shift in the graphics state
 SFVFS[] Set Freedom Vector From Stack
 SFVTCA[a] Set Freedom Vector To Coordinate Axis
 SFVTL[a] Set Freedom Vector To Line
 SFVTP[] Set Freedom Vector To Projection Vector
 SHC[a] SHift Contour using reference point
 SHP[a] SHift Point using reference point
 SHPIX[] SHift point by a PIXel amount
 SHZ[a] SHift Zone using reference point
 SLOOP[] Set LOOP variable
 SMD[] Set Minimum Distance
 SPVFS[] Set Projection Vector From Stack
 SPVTCA[a] Set Projection Vector To Coordinate Axis
 SPVTL[a] Set Projection Vector To Line
 SROUND[] Super ROUND
 SRP0[] Set Reference Point 0
 SRP1[] Set Reference Point 1
 SRP2[] Set Reference Point 2
 SSW[] Set Single Width
 SSWCI[] Set Single Width CutIn
 SUB[] SUBtract
 SVTCA[a] Set freedom and projection Vectors To Coordinate Axis
 SWAP[] SWAP the top two elements on the stack
 SZP0[] Set Zone Pointer 0
 SZP1[] Set Zone Pointer 1
 SZP2[] Set Zone Pointer 2
 SZPS[] Set Zone PointerS
 UTP[] UnTouch Point
 WCVTF[] Write Control Value Table in Funits
 WCVTP[] Write Control Value Table in Pixel units
 WS[] Write Store
Introduction
This section presents an alphabetical listing of the TrueType instruction set. Each description begins with the basic facts. A brief description of the instruction's functionality follows. This material is intended for reference. For an introduction to the TrueType language see Instructing Fonts .Understanding the instruction summaries
The following sections summarize the basic information needed to understand the instruction summaries that follow.The instruction summary format
Each instruction description begins with a tabulation of basic information as shown in FIGURE 1 below. For a given instruction, only the relevant information fields are included. For example, the "From IS" field is omitted for all but the "push" instructions. In generial, if the "Uses" field is omitted from a particular instruction description, it is safe to assume that the instruction has no graphics state dependencies. The instruct control state variable is an exception to this rule. It will not appear in the uses field for each instruction though it can, turn off the execution of all instructions.FIGURE 1 The instruction summary format
MNEMONIC[flags]  explanation of mnemonic 
Code Range  the range of hexadecimal codes identifying this instruction and its variants 
Flags  an explanation of the meaning of a bracketed binary number 
From IS  any arguments taken from the instruction stream by push instructions 
Pops  any arguments popped from the stack 
Pushes  any arguments pushed onto the stack 
Uses  any state variables whose value this instruction depends upon 
Sets  any state variables set by this instruction 
Gets  the state variable whose value is retrieved by this instruction 
Related instructions  any closely related instruction including those with a similar or an opposite effect 
Denoting stack interactions
In the instruction summaries that follow, the arguments an instruction pops from the stack or pushes onto the stack will be listed along with a brief description of their purpose and data type.In the case of arguments popped from the stack, the first argument listed is the first one popped from the stack, the second is the next one popped and so forth.
Pops  arg_{3}: first argument popped (uint32) 
arg_{2}: second argument popped (uint32)  
arg_{1}: third argument popped (F26Dot6) 
In the case of arguments popped from the stack, the first result pushed onto the stack appears first, the second result pushed appears below it and so forth.
Pushes  result1: first result pushed (F26Dot6) 
result2: second result pushed (F26Dot6) 
When it is necessary to summarize the stack interaction of an instruction, the information will be written in a single line. The items popped are on the left to the left of two hyphens, the items pushed are to the right. The example above would be written:
( arg1 arg2 arg3  result1 result2 ).
The right most item in the list is always the item at the top of the stack.
Data types used in the stack
Many of the TrueType instructions interact with the interpreter stack. In simplest terms, they take data from the stack and return results to the stack. The stack elements that they manipulate are all 32 bit values. The way in which instructions interpret these values varies. Some consider all 32 bits pushed or popped to be significant. Some use only certain bits. Some treat the 32 bit quantity as a signed integer, some as an unsigned integer and some as a fixed point value.The data types that can appear on the stack are listed in Table 1 below.
In cases where only a portion of the 32 bits pushed or popped are relevant, the data type has a name that begins with a capital letter E for "extended." Unsigned values are extended to 32 bits with zeroes to the left of the bits that are significant. Signed values are sign extended to 32 bits.
Fixed point numbers have names that begin with the letter F. The name consists of the number of bits representing the integral part of the number, the letters "DOT", representing the binary point. followed by the number of fractional bits. An extended fixed point number begins with the letters EF.
Generic stack elements have the data type StkElt. Any 32 bit quantity can have this data type.
Table 1 : The instruction set data type
Data type  Description 

Eint8  sign extended 8bit interger 
Euint16  zero extended 16bit unsigned integer 
EFWord  sign extended 16bit signed integer that describes a quanity in FUnits, the smallest measurable unit in the em space 
EF2Dot14  sign extended 16bit signed fixed number with the low 14 bits representing fraction 
uint32  32bit unsigned integer 
int32  32bit signed interger 
F26Dot6  32bit signed fixed number with the low 6 bits representing fraction 
StkElt  any 32 bit quantity 
Understanding the illustrations
A number of instructions have accompanying illustrations. Most of these illustrations explain the effects an instruction has on the position of points in a glyph outline. FIGURE 1 lists the conventions used in those illustrations. Remember that, Unless otherwise noted, distances are measured along the projection vector
 Unless otherwise noted, instructions move points along the freedom vector
For more information on moving points see Instructing Fonts .
FIGURE 1 Key to illustrations
The Instructions
AA[] Adjust Angle
Code Range  0x7F 
Pops p:  point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Related instructions  SANGW[ ] 
Pops one argument from the stack. This instruction is anachronistic and has no other effect.
ABS[] ABSolute value
Code Range  0x64 
Pops  n: fixed point number (F26Dot6) 
Pushes  n: absolute value of n (F26Dot6) 
Replaces the number at the top of the stack with its absolute value. 
Pops a 26.6 fixed point number, n, off the stack and pushes the absolute value of n onto the stack.
ADD[] ADD
Code Range  0x60 
Pops  n2: fixed point number (F26Dot6) n1: fixed point number (F26Dot6) 
Pushes  sum: n1 + n2(F26Dot6) 
Adds the top two numbers on the stack. 
Pops two 26.6 fixed point numbers, n2 and n1, off the stack and pushes the sum of those two numbers onto the stack.
ALIGNPTS[] ALIGN Points
Code Range  0x27 
Pops  p2: point number (uint32) p1: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Uses  zp0 with point p2 and zp1 with point p1, freedom vector, projection vector 
Related instructions  ALIGNRP[ ] 
Aligns the two points whose numbers are the top two items on the stack along an axis orthogonal to the projection vector.
Pops two point numbers, p2 and p1, from the stack and makes the distance between them zero by moving both points along the freedom vector to the average of their projections along the projection vector.
In the illustration below, points p1 and p2 are moved along the freedom vector until the projected distance between them is reduced to zero. The distance from A to B equals d/2 which equals the distance from B to C. The value d/2 is onehalf the original projected distance between p1 and p2.
ALIGNRP[] ALIGN to Reference Point
Code Range  0x3C 
Pops  p1, p2, , ploopvalue: point numbers (uint32) 
Pushes   
Uses  zp1 with point p and zp0 with rp0, loop, freedom vector, projection vector 
Related instructions  ALIGNPTS[ ] 
Aligns the points whose numbers are at the top of the stack with the point referenced by rp0.
Pops point numbers, p1, p2, , ploopvalue, from the stack and aligns those points with the current position of rp0 by moving each point pi so that the projected distance from pi to rp0 is reduced to zero. The number of points aligned depends up the current setting the state variable loop.
In the illustration below, point p is moved along the freedom vector until its projected distance from rp0 is reduced to zero.
AND[] logical AND
Code Range  0x5A 
Pops  e2: stack element (StkElt) e1: stack element (StkElt) 
Pushes  (e1 and e2): logical and of e1 and e2 (uint32) 
Related instructions  OR[ ] 
Takes the logical and of the top two stack elements.
Pops the top two elements, e2 and e1, from the stack and pushes the result of a logical and of the two elements onto the stack. Zero is pushed if either or both of the elements are FALSE (have the value zero). One is pushed if both elements are TRUE (have a nonzero value).
CALL[] CALL function
Code Range  0x2B 
Pops  f: function identifier number (int32 in the range 0 through (n1) where n is specified in the 'maxp' table) 
Pushes   
Related instructions  FDEF[ ], EIF[ ] 
Calls the function identified by the number of the top of the stack.
Pops a function identifier number, f, from the stack and calls the function identified by f. The instructions contained in the function body will be executed. When execution of the function is complete, the instruction pointer will move to the next location in the instruction stream where execution of instructions will resume.
CEILING[] CEILING
Code Range  0x67 
Pops  n: fixed point number (F26Dot6) 
Pushes  n : ceiling of n (F26Dot6) 
Related instructions  FLOOR[ ] 
Takes the ceiling of the number at the top of the stack.
Pops a number n from the stack and pushes n , the least integer value greater than or equal to n. Note that the ceiling of n, though an integer value, is expressed as 26.6 fixed point number.
CINDEX[] Copy the INDEXed element to the top of the stack
Code Range  0x25 
Pops  k: stack element number (int32) 
Pushes  ek: kth stack element (StkElt) 
Stack before  k: stack element number 
e1: stack element  
...  
ek: stack element  
Stack after  ek: indexed element 
e1: stack element  
...  
ek: stack element  
Related instructions  MINDEX[ ] 
Copies the indexed stack element to the top of the stack.
Pops a stack element number, k, from the stack and pushes a copy of the kth stack element on the top of the stack. Since it is a copy that is pushed, the kth element remains in its original position. This feature is the key difference between the CINDEX[ ] and MINDEX[ ] instructions.
A zero or negative value for k is an error.
CLEAR[] CLEAR the stack
Code Range  0x22 
Pops  all the items on the stack (StkElt) 
Pushes   
Clears all elements from the stack.
DEBUG[] DEBUG call
Code Range  0x4F 
Pops  n: integer (uint32) 
Pushes   
Pops an integer from the stack. In nondebugging versions of the interpreter, the execution of instructions will continue. In debugging versions, available to font developers, an implementation dependent debugger will be invoked.
This instruction is only for debugging purposes and should not be a part of a finished font. Some implementations do not support this instruction.
DELTAC1[] DELTA exception C1
Code Range  0x73 
Pops  n: number of pairs of exception specifications and CVT entry numbers (uint32) 
argn, cn, argn1,cn1, , arg1, c1: pairs of CVT entry number and exception specifications (pairs of uint32s)  
Pushes   
Uses  delta shift, delta base 
Related instructions  DELTAC2[ ], DELTAC3, DELTAP1, DELTAP2, DELTAP3 
Creates an exception to one or more CVT values, each at a specified point size and by a specified amount.
Pops an integer, n, followed by n pairs of exception specifications and control value table entry numbers. DELTAC1[] changes the value in each CVT entry specified at the size and by the pixel amount specified in its paired argument.
The 8 bit arg component of the DELTAC1[] instruction decomposes into two parts. The most significant 4 bits represent the relative number of pixels per em at which the exception is applied. The least significant 4 bits represent the magnitude of the change to be made.
The relative number of pixels per em is a function of the value specified in the argument and the delta base. The DELTAC1[] instruction works at pixel per em sizes beginning with the delta base through the delta_base + 15. To invoke an exception at a larger pixel per em size, use the DELTAC2[] or DELTAC3[] instruction which can affect changes at sizes up to delta_base + 47 or, if necessary, increase the value of the delta base.
The magnitude of the move is specified, in a coded form, in the instruction. Table 5 lists the mapping from exception values and the magnitude of the move made.The size of the step depends on the value of the delta shift.
Table 4: Magnitude values mapped to number of steps to move
Selector  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15 

Number of steps  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8 
For additional information on the DELTA instructions see Instructing Fonts .
DELTAC2[] DELTA exception C2
Code Range  0x74 
Pops  n: number of pairs of exception specifications and CVT entry numbers (uint32) 
argn, cn, argn1,cn1, , arg1, c1: pairs of CVT entry number and exception specifications (pairs of uint32s)  
Pushes   
Uses  delta shift, delta base 
Related instructions  DELTAC2[ ], DELTAC3[], DELTAP1[], DELTAP2[], DELTAP3[] 
Creates an exception to one or more CVT values, each at a specified point size and by a specified amount.
Pops an integer, n, followed by n pairs of exception specifications and CVT entry numbers. DELTAC2[] changes the value in each CVT entry specified at the size and by the amount specified in its paired argument.
The DELTAC2[] instruction is exactly the same as the DELTAC1[] instruction except for operating at pixel per em sizes beginning with the (delta_base + 16) through the (delta_base + 31). To invoke an exception at a smaller pixel per em size, use the DELTAC1[] instruction. To invoke an exception at a smaller pixel per em size, use the DELTAC3[] instruction which can affect changes at sizes up to delta_base + 47 or, if necessary, change the value of the delta base.
For more information see the entry for DELTAC1[] or Instructing Fonts .
DELTAC3[] DELTA exception C3
Code Range  0x75 
Pops  n: number of pairs of CVT entry numbers and exception specifications (uint32) 
argn, cn, argn1,cn1, , arg1, c1: pairs of CVT entry number and exception specifications (pairs of uint32s)  
Pushes   
Uses  delta shift, delta base 
Related instructions  DELTAC2[ ], DELTAC3[], DELTAP[], DELTAP2[], DELTAP3[] 
Creates an exception to one or more CVT values, each at a specified point size and by a specified amount.
Pops an integer, n, followed by n pairs of exception specifications and CVT entry numbers. DELTAC3[] changes the value in each CVT entry specified at the size and by the amount specified in its paired argument.
The DELTAC3[] instruction is exactly the same as the DELTAC1 instruction except for operating at pixel per em sizes beginning with the (delta_base + 32) through the (delta_base + 47).
For more information see the entry for DELTAC1[] or Instructing Fonts .
DELTAP1[] DELTA exception P1
Code Range 0x5D  
Pops n: number of pairs of exception specifications and points (uint32)  
argn, pn, argn1, pn1, , arg1, p1: n pairs of exception specifications and points (pairs of uint32s)  
Pushes   
Uses  zp0, delta base, delta shift, freedom vector, projection vector 
Related instructions  DELTAC2[ ], DELTAC3, DELTAP1, DELTAP2, DELTAP3 
Creates an exception at one or more point locations, each at a specified point size and by a specified amount.
DELTAP1[] works on the points in the zone reference by zp0. It moves the specified points at the size and by the amount specified in the paired argument. Moving a point makes it possible to turn on or off selected pixels in the bitmap that will be created when the affected outline is scan converted. An arbitrary number of points and arguments can be specified.
The grouping [argi, pi] can be executed n times. The value of argi consists of a byte with lower four bits of which represent the magnitude of the exception and the upper four bits, the relative pixel per em value.
The actual pixel per em size at which a DELTAP instruction works is a function of the relative pixel per em size and the delta base. The DELTAP1[] instruction works at pixel per em sizes beginning with the delta base through the delta_base + 15. To invoke an exception at a larger pixel per em size, use the DELTAP2[] or DELTAP3[] instruction which together can affect changes at sizes up to delta_base + 47 or, if necessary, increase the value of the delta base.
The magnitude of the move is specified, in a coded form, in the instruction. Table 5 lists the mapping from exception values used in a DELTA instruction to the magnitude in steps of the move made. The size of the step depends on the value of the delta shift.
Table 5: Magnitude values mapped to number of steps to move
Selector  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15 

Number of steps  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8 
DELTAP2[] DELTA exception P2
Code Range  0x71 
Pops  n: number of pairs of exception specifications and points (uint32) 
argn, pn, argn1, pn1, , arg1, p1: n pairs of exception specifications and points (pairs of uint32s)  
Pushes   
Uses  zp0, delta shift, delta base, freedom vector, projection vector 
Related instructions  DELTAC2[ ], DELTAC3, DELTAP1, DELTAP2, DELTAP3 
Creates an exception at one or more point locations, each at a specified point size and by a specified amount.
DELTAP2[] works on the points in the zone reference by zp0. It moves the specified points at the size and by the amount specified in the paired argument. Moving a point makes it possible to turn on or off selected pixels in the bitmap that will be created when the affected outline is scan converted. An arbitrary number of points and arguments can be specified.
The DELTAP2[] instruction is identical to the DELTAP1[] instruction save for operating at pixel per em sizes beginning with the (delta_base + 16) through the (delta_base + 31). To invoke an exception at a smaller pixel per em size, use the DELTAP1[] instruction. To invoke an exception at a smaller pixel per em size, use the DELTAP3[] instruction. If necessary, change the value of the delta_base.
DELTAP3[] DELTA exception P3
Code Range  0x72 
Pops  n: number of pairs of exception specifications and points (uint32) 
argn, pn, argn1, pn1, , arg1, p1: n pairs of exception specifications and points (pairs of uint32s)  
Pushes   
Uses  zp0, delta base, delta shift, freedom vector, projection vector 
Related instructions  DELTAC2[ ], DELTAC3, DELTAP1, DELTAP2, DELTAP3 
Creates an exception at one or more point locations, each at a specified point size and by a specified amount.
Pops an integer, n, followed by n pairs of exception specifications and points. DELTAP3[] works on the points in the zone reference by zp0. It moves the specified points at the size and by the amount specified in the paired argument. Moving a point makes it possible to turn on or off selected pixels in the bitmap that will be created when the affected outline is scan converted. An arbitrary number of points and arguments can be specified.
The DELTAP3[] instruction is identical to the DELTAP1[] instruction save for operating at pixel per em sizes beginning with the (delta_base + 32) through the (delta base + 47). To invoke an exception at a smaller pixel per em size, use the DELTAP1[] or the DELTAP2[] instruction. If necessary, change the value of the delta base.
DEPTH[] DEPTH of the stack
Code Range  0x24 
Pops   
Pushes  n: number of elements (int32) 
Pushes n, the number of elements currently in the stack, onto the stack.
DIV[] DIVide
Code Range  0x62 
Pops  n2: divisor (F26Dot6) 
n1: dividend (F26Dot6)  
Pushes  (n1 * 64)/n2: quotient (F26Dot6) 
Divides the number second from the top of the stack by the number at the top of the stack.
Pops two 26.6 fixed point numbers, n1 and n2 off the stack and pushes onto the stack the quotient obtained by dividing n2 by n1. The division takes place in the following fashion, n1 is shifted left by six bits and then divided by 2.
DUP[] DUPlicate top stack element
Code Range  0x20 
Pops  e: stack element (StkElt) 
Pushes  e: stack element (StkElt) 
e: stack element (StkElt) 
Duplicates the top element on the stack.
Pops an element, e, from the stack, duplicates that element and pushes it twice.
EIF[] End IF
Code Range  0x59 
Pops   
Pushes   
Related instructions  IF[ ], ELSE[ ] 
Marks the end of an IF or IFELSE instruction sequence.
ELSE[] ELSE clause
Code Range  0x1B 
Pops   
Pushes   
Related instructions  IF[ ], EIF[ ] 
Marks the start of the sequence of instructions that are to be executed when an IF instruction encounters a FALSE value on the stack. This sequence of instructions is terminated with an EIF instruction.
The ELSE portion of an IFELSEEIF sequence is optional.
ENDF[] END Function definition
Code Range  0x2D 
Pops   
Pushes   
Related instructions  FDEF[ ], IDEF[ ] 
Marks the end of a function definition or an instruction definition. Function definitions and instruction definitions cannot be nested.
EQ[] EQual
Code Range  0x54 
Pops  e2: stack element e1: stack element 
Pushes  b: Boolean value (uint32 in the range [0,1]) 
Related instructions  NEQ[ ] 
Tests whether the top two numbers on the stack are equal in value.
Pops two 32 bit values, e2 and e1, from the stack and compares them. If they are the same, one, signifying TRUE is pushed onto the stack. If they are not equal, zero, signifying FALSE is placed onto the stack.
EVEN[] EVEN
Code Range  0x57 
Pops  e: stack element (F26Dot6) 
Pushes  b: Boolean value (uint32 in the range [0,1]) 
Uses  round state 
Related instructions  ODD[ ] 
Tests whether the number at the top of the stack, when rounded according to the round state, is even.
Pops a 26.6 number, e, from the stack and rounds that number according to the current round state. The number is then truncated to an integer. If the truncated number is even, one, signifying TRUE, is pushed onto the stack; if it is odd, zero, signifying FALSE, is placed onto the stack.
FDEF[] Function DEFinition
Code Range  0x2C 
Pops  f: function identifier number (integer in the range 0 through (n1) where n is specified in the 'maxp' table 
Pushes   
Related instructions  ENDF[ ], CALL[ ] 
Marks the start of a function definition and pops a number, f, from the stack to uniquely identify this function. That definition will terminate when an ENDF[] is encountered in the instruction stream. A function definition can appear only in the font program or the CVT program. Functions must be defined before they can be used with a CALL[ ] instruction.
FLIPOFF[] set the auto FLIP Boolean to OFF
Code Range  0x4E 
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  auto flip 
Affects  MIRP, MIAP 
Related instructions  FLIPON[ ], MIRP[ ], MIAP[ ] 
Sets the auto flip Boolean in the graphics state to FALSE causing the MIRP[] and MIAP[] instructions to use the sign of control value table entries. When auto flip is set to FALSE, the direction in which distances are measured becomes significant. The default value for the auto flip state variable is TRUE.
FLIPON[] set the auto FLIP Boolean to ON
Code Range  0x4D 
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  auto flip 
Affects  MIRP, MIAP 
Related instructions  FLIPOFF[ ], MIRP[ ], MIAP[ ] 
Sets the auto flip Boolean in the graphics state to TRUE causing the MIRP[] and MIAP[] instructions to ignore the sign of control value table entries. When the auto flip variable is TRUE, the direction in which distances are measured becomes insignificant. The default value for the auto flip state variable is TRUE.
FLIPPT[] FLIP PoinT
Code Range  0x80 
Pops  p1, p2, , ploopvalue: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Uses  zp0, loop 
Related instructions  FLIPRGON[ ], FLIPRGOFF[ ] 
Makes an oncurve point an offcurve point or an offcurve point an oncurve point.
Pops points, p, p1, p2, , ploopvalue from the stack. If pi is an oncurve point it is made an offcurve point. If pi is an offcurve point it is made an oncurve point. None of the points pi is marked as touched. As a result, none of the flipped points will be affected by an IUP[ ] instruction. A FLIPPT[ ] instruction redefines the shape of a glyph outline.
FLIPRGOFF[] FLIP RanGe OFF
Code Range  0x82 
Pops  h: high point number in range (uint32) 
l: low point number in range (uint32)  
Pushes   
Uses  zp0 
Related instructions  FLIPPT[ ], FLIPRGOFF[ ] 
Changes all of the points in the range specified to offcurve points.
Pops two numbers defining a range of points, the first a highpoint and the second a lowpoint. Oncurve points in this range will become offcurve points. The position of the points is not affected and accordingly the points are not marked as touched.
FLIPRGON[] FLIP RanGe ON
Code Range  0x81 
Pops  h: highest point number in range of points to be flipped (uint32) 
l: lowest point number in range of points to be flipped (uint32)  
Pushes   
Uses  zp0 
Related instructions  FLIPPT[ ], FLIPRGOFF[ ] 
Makes all the points in a specified range into oncurve points.
Pops two numbers defining a range of points, the first a highpoint and the second a lowpoint. Offcurve points in this range will become oncurve points. The position of the points is not affected and accordingly the points are not marked as touched.
FLOOR[] FLOOR
Code Range  0x66 
Pops  n: number whose floor is desired (F26Dot6) 
Pushes  n : floor of n (F26Dot6) 
Related instructions  CEILING[ ] 
Takes the floor of the value at the top of the stack.
Pops a 26.6 fixed point number n from the stack and returns n , the greatest integer value less than or equal to n. Note that the floor of n, though an integer value, is expressed as 26.6 fixed point number.
GC[a] Get Coordinate projected onto the projection vector
Code Range  0x46  0x47 
a  0: use current position of point p 
1: use the position of point p in the original outline  
Pops  p: point number (uint32) 
Pushes  c: coordinate location (F26Dot6) 
Uses  zp2, projection vector, dual projection vector 
Related instructions  SCFS[ ] 
Gets the coordinate value of the specified point using the current projection vector.
Pops a point number p and pushes the coordinate value of that point on the current projection vector onto the stack. The value returned by GC[] is dependent upon the current direction of the projection vector.
The illustration below, GC[1], with p1 at the top of the stack, returns the original position of point p1 while GC[0], with p2 at the top of the stack, returns the current position of point p2.
GETINFO[] GET INFOrmation
Code Range  0x88 
Pops  selector: integer (uint32) 
Pushes  result: integer (uint32) 
Used to obtain data about the version of the TrueType engine that is rendering the font as well as the characteristics of the current glyph. The instruction pops a selector used to determine the type of information desired and pushes a result onto the stack.
Setting bit 0 in the selector requests the engine version. Setting bit 1 asks whether the glyph has been rotated. Setting bit 2 asks whether the glyph has been stretched. To request information on two or more of these values, set the appropriate bits. For example, a selector value of 6 (0112) requests information on both rotation and stretching.
The result is pushed onto the stack with the requested information. Bits 0 through 7 of result comprise the font engine version number. The version numbers are listed in TABLE 02.
Bit 8 is set to 1 if the current glyph has been rotated. It is 0 otherwise. Bit 9 is set to 1 to indicate that the glyph has been stretched. It is 0 otherwise.
TABLE 01 Selector bits and the results produced
selector bits  meaning  result bits 

0  get engine version  07 
1  rotated?  8 
2  stretched?  9 
The possible values for the engine version are given in TABLE 02.
TABLE 02 Font engine version number
System  Engine Version 

Macintosh System 6.0  1 
Macintosh System 7.0  2 
Windows 3.1  3 
KanjiTalk 6.1  4 
If the TrueType engine is the System 7.0 version and the selector requested information on the version number, rotation and stretching and the glyph is rotated but not stretched, the result will be 01 0000 00102 or 258.
GFV[] Get Freedom Vector
Code Range  0x0D 
Pops   
Pushes  p_{x}: x component (EF2Dot14) 
p_{y}: y component (EF2Dot14)  
Gets  freedom vector 
Related instructions  GPV[ ] 
Decomposes the current freedom vector into its x and y components and puts those components on the stack as two 2.14 numbers. The numbers occupy the least significant two bytes of each long.
The first component pushed, px, is the xcomponent of the freedom vector. The second pushed, py, is the ycomponent of the freedom vector. Each is a 2.14 number.
GFV[] treats the freedom vector as a unit vector originating at the grid origin. In the illustration below, the distance from point A to point B is 1 unit.
GPV[] Get Projection Vector
Code Range  0x0C 
Pops   
Pushes  p^{x}: x component (EF2Dot14) 
p^{y}: y component (EF2Dot14)  
Gets  projection vector 
Related instructions  GFV[ ] 
Decomposes the current projection vector into its x and y components and pushes those components onto the stack as two 2.14 numbers.
The first component pushed, px, is the xcomponent of the projection vector. The second pushed, py, is the ycomponent of the projection vector.
GPV[] treats the projection vector as a unit vector originating at the grid origin. In the illustration below, the distance from point A to point B is one unit.
GT[] Greater Than
Code Range  0x52 
Pops  e2: stack element e1: stack element 
Pushes  b: Boolean value (uint32 in the range [0,1]) 
Related instructions  LT[ ], GTEQ[ ] 
Compares the size of the top two stack elements.
Pops two integers, e2 and e1, from the stack and compares them. If e1 is greater than e2, one, signifying TRUE, is pushed onto the stack. If e1 is not greater than e1, zero, signifying FALSE, is placed onto the stack.
GTEQ[] Greater Than or EQual
Code Range  0x53 
Pops  e2: stack element e1: stack element 
Pushes  b: Boolean value (uint32 in the range [0,1]) 
Related instructions  LTEQ[ ], GT[ ] 
Compares the size of the top two stack elements.
Pops two integers, e2 and e1, from the stack and compares them. If e1 is greater than or equal to e2, one, signifying TRUE, is pushed onto the stack. If e1 is not greater than or equal to e1, zero, signifying FALSE, is placed onto the stack.
IDEF[] Instruction DEFinition
Code Range  0x89 
Pops  opcode (Eint8) 
Pushes   
Related instructions  ENDF[ ] 
Begins the definition of an instruction. The instruction is identified by the opcode popped. The intent of the IDEF[ ] instruction is to allow old versions of the scaler to work with fonts that use instructions defined in later releases of the TrueType interpreter. Referencing an undefined opcode will have no effect. The IDEF[ ] is not intended for creating user defined instructions. The FDEF[ ] should be used for that purpose.
The instruction definition that began with the IDEF[ ] terminates when an ENDF[ ] is encountered in the instruction stream. Nested IDEFs are not allowed. Subsequent executions of the opcode popped will be directed to the contents of this instruction definition. IDEFs should be defined in the font program. Defining instructions in the CVT program is not recommended.
IF[] IF test
Code Range  0x58 
Pops  e: stack element 
Pushes   
Related instructions  ELSE[ ], EIF[ ] 
Marks the beginning of an ifstatement.
Pops an integer, e, from the stack. If e is zero (FALSE), the instruction pointer is moved to the associated ELSE or EIF[] instruction in the instruction stream. If e is nonzero (TRUE), the next instruction in the instruction stream is executed. Execution continues until the associated ELSE[] instruction is encountered or the associated EIF[] instruction ends the IF[] statement. If an associated ELSE[] statement is found before the EIF[], the instruction pointer is moved to the EIF[] statement.
INSTCTRL[ ] INSTRuction execution ConTRoL
Code Range  0x8E 
Pops  s: selector (int32) v: value for instruction control (int32) 
Pushes   
Sets  instruction control 
Sets the instruction control state variable making it possible to turn on or off the execution of instructions and to regulate use of parameters set in the CVT program.
This instruction clears and sets various control flags. The selector is used to choose the relevant flag. The value determines the new setting of that flag.
In the version 1.0 there are only two flags in use.
Flag 1 is used to inhibit gridfitting. It is chosen with a selector value of 1. If this flag is set to TRUE (v=1), any instructions associated with glyphs will not be executed. If the flag is FALSE (v=0), instructions will be executed. For example, to inhibit gridfitting when a glyph is being rotated or stretched, use the following sequence on the preprogram:
PUSHB[000] 6  /* ask GETINFO to check for stretching or rotation */ 
GETINFO[ ]  /* will push TRUE if glyph is stretched or rotated */ 
IF[]  /* tests value at top of stack */ 
PUSHB[000] 1  /* value for INSTCTRL */ 
PUSHB[000] 1  /* selector for INSTCTRL */ 
INSTCTRL[]  /* based on selector and value will turn gridfitting off */ 
EIF[] 
Flag 2 is used to establish that any parameters set in the CVT program should be ignored when instructions associated with glyphs are executed. These include, for example, the values for scantype and the CVT cutin. When flag2 is set to TRUE the default values of those parameters will be used regardless of any changes that may have been made in those values by the preprogram. When flag2 is set to FALSE, parameter values changed by the CVT program will be used in glyph instructions.
INSTCTRL[] can only be executed in the CVT program.
IP[] Interpolate Point
Code Range  0x39 
Pops  p1, p2, , ploopvalue: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Uses  zp0 with rp1, zp1 with rp2, zp2 with point p, loop, freedom vector, projection vector, dual projection vector 
Related instructions  IUP[ ] 
Interpolates the position of the specified points to preserve their original relationship with the reference points rp^{1} and rp^{2}.
Pops point numbers, p^{1}, p^{2}, , ploopvalue, from the stack. Moves each point p^{i} so that its relationship to rp^{1} and rp^{2} is the same as it was in the original uninstructed outline. That is, the following relationship holds:
This instruction is illegal if rp^{1} and rp^{2} occupy the same position on the projection vector.
More intuitively, an IP[] instruction preserves the relative relationship of a point relative to two reference points.
In the illustrations below, point p is interpolated relative to reference points rp^{1} and rp^{2}. In the first illustration, which depicts the situation before the IP[] instruction is executed, the distance from of point p to the original position of rp^{1} is d1 and the distance from point p to the original position of point rp^{2} is d2. The ratio of the two distances is d1:d2.
The effect of the IP[] instruction is shown in the illustration below. It moves point p along the freedom vector until the ratio of the distance, d3, from the current position of rp1 to point p, to the distance, d4, from point p to the current position of point rp2 is equal to d1:d2. That is, point p is moved along the freedom vector until d1:d2 = d3:d4.when these distances are measured along the projection vector.
ISECT[] moves point p to the InterSECTion of two lines
Code Range  0x0F 
Pops  a^{0}: start point of line A (uint32) 
a^{1}: end point of line A (uint32)  
b^{0}: start point of line B (uint32)  
b^{1}: end point of line B (uint32)  
p: point to move (uint32) Pushes   
Uses  zp^{2} with point p, zp^{0} with line A, zp1 with line B 
Moves the specified point to the intersection of the two lines specified.
Pops the end points of line A, a^{0} and a^{1}, followed by the end points of line B, b^{0} and b^{1} followed by point p. Puts point p at the intersection of the lines A and B. The points a^{0} and a^{1} define line A. Similarly, b^{0} and b^{1} define line B. ISECT ignores the freedom vector in moving point p.
In the degenerate case of parallel lines A and B, the point is put in the middle. That is.
In the illustration below, point p is moved from its current position to the intersection of the line defined by a^{0}, a^{1} and the line defined by b^{0}, b^{1}. Note that point p need not move along the freedom vector but is simply relocated at the point of intersection.
IUP[a] Interpolate Untouched Points through the outline
Code Range  0x30  0x31 
a  0: interpolate in the ydirection 
1: interpolate in the xdirection  
Pops   
Pushes   
Uses  zp^{2} 
Related instructions  IP[ ] 
Interpolates untouched points in the zone referenced by zp^{2} to preserve the original relationship of the untouched points to the other points in that zone.
Considers the reference glyph outline contour by contour, moving any untouched points that fall sequentially between a pair of touched points. How such a point is moved, however, depends on whether its projection fall between the projections of the touched points. That is, if the projected xcoordinate or ycoordinate (depending on whether the interpolation is in x or in y) of an untouched point were originally between those of the touched pair, that coordiante is linearly interpolated between the new coordinates of the touched points. Otherwise the untouched point is shifted by the amount the nearest touched point was shifted from its original outline position. The value of the Boolean a, determines whether the interpolation will be in the xdirection or the ydirection. The current settings of the freedom and projection vectors are not relevant.
The set of fiigures below illustrates this distinction. The first illustration shows the contour before the IUP[] instruction is executed. Here p^{1}, p^{2}, p^{3}, p^{4} and p^{5} are consecutive points on a contour. Point p^{2}, p_{3} and p_{4} all fall sequentially between p_{1} and p_{5} on the contour. Assume that point p_{3} has been touched.
Point p_{4} has an xcoordinate that is between p_{1} and p_{5} while points p_{2} and p_{3} do not. Assume that p1 and p5 have been moved by a previous instructions and that point p_{3} has been touched but not moved from its original position. As a result of an IUP[1] an interpolation in the xdirection takes place. Point p_{4} will be linearly interpolated. Point p_{2} will be shifted by the amount the nearest touched point was shifted. Point p_{3} will be unaffected. (Points p_{2} and p_{4} are assumed to be in their original position. This is not strictly necessary as a point that has been moved can be untouched with the UTP[ ] instruction and hence subject to the actions of an IUP[ ] instruction.)
As the result of the IUP[1] instruction, two points are moved. The first move is the shift illustrated below. Point p_{1} has moved a distance ds units parallel to the xaxis from its original position. Point p_{2} is moved parallel to the xaxis until it is at a distance equal to ds from its original position.
The second move is the linear interpolation shown in the illustration below. Point p4 is moved along the specified axis to a new position that preserves its relative distance from points p_{1} and p_{5}. After the interpolation the ratio of the original distance from point p_{4} to p_{1} (d_{1}) to the original distance of point p_{4} to p_{5} (d_{2}) is the same as the ratio of the new distance from point p_{4} to p_{1}(d_{3}) to the new distance of point p_{4} to p_{4} (d_{4}). That is: d_{1}:d_{2} = d_{3}:d_{4}
This instruction operates on points in the glyph zone pointed to by zp_{2}. This zone should always be zone 1. Applying IUP[ ] to zone 0 is illegal.
The IUP[ ] instruction does not touch the points it moves. Thus the untouched points affected by an IUP[ ] instruction will be affected by subsequent IUP[] instructions unless they are touched by an intervening instruction.
JMPR[] JuMP Relative
Code Range  0x1C 
Pops  offset: number of bytes to move instruction pointer (int32) 
Pushes   
Related instructions  JROF[ ], JROT[ ] 
Moves the instruction pointer to a new location specified by the offset popped from the stack.
Pops an integer offset from the stack. The signed offset is added to the instruction pointer and execution is resumed at the new location in the instruction steam. The jump is relative to the position of the instruction itself. That is, an offset of +1 causes the instruction immediately following the JMPR[] instruction to be executed.
JROF[] Jump Relative On False
Code Range  0x79 
Pops  e: stack element offset: number of bytes to move instruction pointer (int32) 
Pushes   
Related instructions  JMPR[ ] JROT[ ] 
Moves the instruction pointer to a new location specified by the offset popped from the stack if the element tested has a FALSE (zero) value.
Pops a Boolean value, e and an offset. In the case where the Boolean, e, is FALSE, the signed offset will be added to the instruction pointer and execution will be resumed at the new location; otherwise, the jump is not taken. The jump is relative to the position of the instruction itself.
JROT[] Jump Relative On True
Code Range  0x78 
Pops  e: stack element 
offset: number of bytes to move  
instruction pointer (int32)  
Pushes   
Related instructions  JMPR[ ] JROF[ ] 
Moves the instruction pointer to a new location specified by the offset value popped from the stack if the element tested has a TRUE value.
Pops a Boolean value, e and an offset. If the Boolean is TRUE (nonzero) the signed offset will be added to the instruction pointer and execution will be resumed at the address obtained. Otherwise, the jump is not taken. The jump is relative to the position of the instruction itself.
LOOPCALL[] LOOP and CALL function
Code Range  0x2A 
Pops  f: function number integer in the range 0 through (n1) where n is specified in the 'maxp' table count: number of times to call the function (signed word) 
Pushes   
Related instructions  SLOOP[ ] 
Repeatedly calls a function.
Pops a function number f and a count. Calls the function, f, count number of times.
LT[] Less Than
Code Range  0x50 
Pops  e2: stack element (StkElt) 
e1: stack element (StkElt)  
Pushes  b: Boolean value (uint32 in the range [0,1]) 
Related instructions  GT[ ], LTEQ[ ] 
Compares the two number at the top of the stack. The test succeeds if the second of the two numbers is smaller than the first.
Pops two integers from the stack, e_{2} and e_{1}, and compares them. If e_{1} is less than e_{2}, 1, signifying TRUE, is pushed onto the stack. If e_{1} is not less than e_{2}, 0, signifying FALSE, is placed onto the stack.
LTEQ[] Less Than or EQual
Code Range  0x51 
Pops  e2: stack element 
e1: stack element  
Pushes  b: Boolean value (uint32 in the range [0,1]) 
Related instructions  GTEQ[ ], LT[ ] 
Compares the two numbers at the top of the stack. The test succeeds if the second of the two numbers is smaller than or equal to the first.
Pops two integers, e2 and e1 from the stack and compares them. If e_{1} is less than or equal to e_{2}, one, signifying TRUE, is pushed onto the stack. If e_{1} is greater than e_{2}, zero, signifying FALSE, is placed onto the stack.
MAX[] MAXimum of top two stack elements
Code Range  0x8B 
Pops  e2: stack element 
e1: stack element  
Pushes  maximum of e1 and e2 
Related instructions  MIN[ ] 
Returns the larger of the top two stack elements.
Pops two elements, e_{2} and e1, from the stack and pushes the larger of these two quantities onto the stack.
MD[a] Measure Distance
Code Range  0x49  0x4A 
a  0: measure distance in gridfitted outline 
1: measure distance in original outline  
Pops  p2: point number (uint32) p1: point number (uint32) 
Pushes  d: distance (F26Dot6) 
Uses zp_{0} with point p_{1}, zp_{1} with point p_{2}, projection vector, dual projectionv ector
Measures the distance between the two points specified.
Pops two point numbers p_{2} and p_{1} and measures the distance between the two points specified. The distance, d, is pushed onto the stack as a pixel coordinate. The distance is signed. Reversing the order in which the points are listed will change the sign of the result.
Depending upon the setting of the Boolean variable a, distance will be measured in the original outline or the gridfitted outline. MD[0] measures the distance in the original outline while MD[1] measures the distance in the gridfitted outline. As always, distance is measured along the projection vector. Just as reversing the order in which the points are listed will change the sign of the distance, reversing the orientation of the projection vector will have the same effect.
In the example below, MD[1] will yield the original outline distance from point p_{1} to point p_{2}. MD[0] will yield the distance from point p_{1} to point p_{2}.
MDAP[a] Move Direct Absolute Point
Code Range  0x2E  0x2F 
a:  0: do not round the value 
1: round the value  
Pops  p: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  rp0 and rp1 are set to point p 
Uses  zp0, freedom vector, projection vector, round state 
Related instructions  MDRP[ ], MIAP[ ] 
Touch and, in some cases, round the specified point. A point that is "dapped" will be unaffected by subsequent IUP[ ] instructions and is generally intended to serve as a reference point for future instructions. Dapping a point with rounding set to grid will cause the point to have an integer valued coordinate along the projection vector. If the projection vector is set to the xaxis or yaxis, this will cause the point to be gridaligned.
Pops a point number, p, and sets reference points rp0 and rp1 to point p. If the Boolean a is set to 1, the coordinate of point p, as measured against the projection vector, will be rounded and then moved the rounded distance from its current position. If the Boolean a is set to 0, point p is not moved, but nonetheless is marked as touched in the direction(s) specified by the current freedom vector.
MDRP[abcde] Move Direct Relative Point
Code Range  0xC0  0xDF 
a  0: do not reset rp0 to point p 
1: set rp0 to point p  
b  0: do not keep distance greater than or equal to minimum distance 
1: keep distance greater than or equal to minimum distance 

c  0: do not round distance 
1: round the distance 

de  distance type for engine characteristic compensation 
Pops  p: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  after point p is moved, rp1 is set equal to rp0, rp2 is set equal to point number p; if the a flag is set to TRUE, rp0 is set equal to point number p 
Uses  zp0 with rp0 and zp1 with point p, minimum distance, round state,single width value, single width cutin, freedom vector, projection vector, dual projection vector 
Related instructions  MDAP[ ], MIRP[ ] 
Preserves the master outline distance between the specified point and the reference point rp_{0}.
Pops a point number, p, and moves point p along the freedom vector so that the distance from its new position to the current position of rp_{0} is the same as the distance between the two points in the original uninstructed outline, and then adjusts it to be consistent with the Boolean settings. Note that it is only the original positions of rp_{0} and point p and the current position of rp0 that determine the new position of point p along the freedom vector.
MDRP[] is typically used to control the width or height of a glyph feature using a value which comes from the original outline. Since MDRP[] uses a direct measurement and does not reference the control value cutin, it is used to control measurements that are unique to the glyph being instructed. Where there is a need to coordinate the control of a point with the treatment of points in other glyphs in the font, a MIRP[] instruction is needed.
Though MDRP[] does not refer to the CVT, its effect does depend upon the singlewidth cutin value. If the device space distance between the measured value taken from the uninstructed outline and the single width value is less than the single width cutin, the single width value will be used in preference to the outline distance. In other words, if the two distances are sufficiently close (differ by less than the single width cutin), the single width value will be used.
The setting of the round state graphics state variable will determine whether and how the distance of point p from rp_{0} is rounded. If the round bit is not set, the value will be unrounded. If the round bit is set, the effect will depend upon the choice of rounding state.
A MDRP[] instruction can also be set to use the minimum distance value. Minimum distance sets a lower bound on the value the distance between two points can be rounded to.
Distances measured with the MDRP[] instruction, like all TrueType distances, must be either black, white or grey. Indicating this value in Booleans de allows the interpreter to compensate for engine characteristics as needed.
The illustration below, point p is moved along the freedom vector from its current position to a new position that is a distance, d from the reference point rp_{0}. This distance is the same as the original distance from p to rp_{0}.
MIAP[a] Move Indirect Absolute Point
Code Range  0x3E  0x3F 
a  0: don't round the distance and don't look at the control value cutin 
1: round the distance and look at the control value cutin  
Pops  n: CVT entry number (F26Dot6) 
p: point number (uint32)  
Pushes   
Sets  set rp0 and rp1 to point p 
Uses  zp0, round state, control value cutin, freedom vector, projection vector 
Related instructions  MSIRP[ ], MIRP[ ], MDAP[ ] 
Makes it possible to coordinate the location of a point with that of other similar points by moving that point to a location specified in the control value table.
Pops a CVT entry number n and a point number p and then moves point p to the absolute coordinate position specified by the nth control value table entry. The coordinate is measured along the current projection vector. If boolean a has the value one, the position will be rounded as specified by round state. If boolean a has the value one and the device space difference between the CVT value and the original position is greater than the control value cutin, the original position will be rounded (instead of the CVT value.)
The a Boolean above controls both rounding and the use of the control value cutin. To have this Boolean specify only whether or not the MIAP[] instruction should look at the control value cutin value, use the ROFF[] instruction to turn off rounding.
This instruction can be used to "create" twilight zone points. This is accomplished by setting zp0 to zone 0 and moving the specified point, which is initially at the origin to the desired location.
In the illustration below, point p is moved along the freedom vector until it occupies a position that projects to c units along the projection vector.
MIN[] MINimum of top two stack elements
Code Range  0x8C 
Pops  e2: stack element e1: stack element 
Pushes  minimum of e1 and e2 
Related instructions  MAX[ ] 
Returns the minimum of the top two stack elements.
Pops two elements, e2 and e1, from the stack and pushes the smaller of these two quantities onto the stack.
MINDEX[] Move the INDEXed element to the top of the stack
Code Range  0x26 
Pops  k: stack element 
Pushes  ek: stack element 
Stack before  k: stack element number (uint32) 
e1: stack element  
...  
ek1: stack element  
ek: stack element  
Stack after  ek: indexed element 
e1: stack element  
...  
ek1: stack element  
Related instructions  CINDEX[ ] 
Moves the indexed element to the top of the stack thereby removing it from its original position.
Pops an integer, k, from the stack and moves the element with index k to the top of the stack.
MIRP[abcde] Move Indirect Relative Point
Code Range  0xE0  0xFF 
a  0: Do not set rp0 to p 
1: Set rp0 to p  
b  0: Do not keep distance greater than or equal to minimum distance 
1: Keep distance greater than or equal to minimum distance  
c  0: Do not round the distance and do not look at the control value cutin 
1: Round the distance and look at the control value cutin value  
de:  distance type for engine characteristic compensation 
Pops  n: CVT entry number (F26Dot6) p: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Uses  zp0 with rp0 and zp1 with point p. round state, control value cutin, single width value, single width cutin, freedom vector, projection vector, auto flip, dual projection vector 
Sets  After it has moved the point this instruction sets rp1 equal to rp0, rp2 is set equal to point number p; lastly, if a has the value TRUE, rp0 is set to point number p. 
Related instructions  MSIRP[ ], MIAP[ ], MDRP[ ] 
Makes it possible to coordinate the distance between a point and a reference point with other similar distances by making that distance subject to a control value table entry.
Moves point p along the freedom vector so that the distance from p to the current position of rp_{0} is equal to the distance stated in the referenced CVT entry, assuming that the cutin test succeeds. Note that in making the cutin test, MIRP[] uses the original outline distance between p and rp0. If the cutin test fails, point p will be moved so that its distance from the current position of rp0 is equal to the original outline distance between p and the point referenced by rp_{0}.
A MIRP[] instruction makes it possible to preserve the distance between two points subject to a number of qualifications. Depending upon the setting of Boolean flag b, the distance can be kept greater than or equal to the value established by the minimum distance state variable. Similarly, the instruction can be set to round the distance according to the round state graphics state variable. The value of the minimum distance variable is the smallest possible value the distance between two points can be rounded to. Additionally, if the c Boolean is set, the MIRP[] instruction acts subject to the control value cutin. If the difference between the actual measurement and the value in the CVT is sufficiently small (less than the cutin value), the CVT value will be used and not the actual value. If the device space difference between the CVT value and the single width value is smaller than the single width cutin, then use the single width value rather than the control value table distance.
The c Boolean above controls both rounding and the use of control value table entries. If you would like the meaning of this Boolean to specify only whether or not the MIRP[] instruction should look at the control value cutin, use the ROFF[] instruction to turn off rounding. In this manner, it is possible to specify that rounding is off but the cutin still applies.
MIRP[] can be used to create points in the twilight zone.
In the illustration below, point p is moved along the freedom vector until its distance to point rp_{0} is equal to the distance d found in the reference CVT entry.
MPPEM[] Measure Pixels Per EM
Code Range  0x4B 
Pops   
Pushes  ppem: pixels per em (Euint16) 
Uses  projection vector 
Related instructions  MPS[ ] 
Pushes the current number of pixels per em onto the stack. Pixels per em is a function of the resolution of the rendering device and the current point size and the current transformation matrix. This instruction looks at the projection vector and returns the number of pixels per em in that direction. The number is always an integer.
The illustration below shows magnifications of an 18 point Times New Roman s at 72 dpi, 144 dpi, and 300 dpi, respectively. Increasing the number of pixels per em improves the quality of the image obtained. It does not, however, change the absolute size of the image obtained.
MPS[] Measure Point Size 

Code Range  0x4C 
Pops   
Pushes  pointSize: the current point size(Euint16) 
Related instructions  MPPEM[ ] 
Pushes the current point size onto the stack.
Measure point size can be used to obtain a value which serves as the basis for choosing whether to branch to an alternative path through the instruction stream. It makes it possible to treat point sizes below or above a certain threshold differently.
The illustration below shows magnifications of 12 point, 24 point, and 48point Times New Roman Q at 72 dpi. Note that increasing the point size of a glyph increases its absolute size. On a low resolution device, like a screen, more detail can be captured at a higher point size.
MSIRP[a] Move Stack Indirect Relative Point
Code Range  0x3A  0x3B 
a  0: do not change rp0 
1: set rp0 to point number p  
Pops  d: distance (F26Dot6) p: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Uses  zp1 with point p and zp0 with rp0, freedom vector, projection vector 
Related instructions  MIRP[ ] 
Makes it possible to coordinate the distance between a point and a reference point by setting the distance from a value popped from the stack.
Pops a distance, d and a point number, p, and makes the distance between point p and the current position of rp0 equal to d. The distance, d, is in pixel coordinates.
MSIRP[ ] is very similar to the MIRP[ ] instruction except for taking the distance from the stack rather than the CVT. Since MSIRP[ ] does not use the CVT, the control value cutin is not a factor as it is in MIRP[ ]. Since MSIRP[ ] does not round, its effect is not dependent upon the round state.
MSIRP[] can be used to create points in the twilight zone.
In the illustration below, point p is moved along the freedom vector until it is at a distance d from rp0.
MUL[] MULtiply
Code Range  0x63 
Pops  n_{2}: multiplier (F26Dot6) 
n_{1}: multiplicand (F26Dot6)  
Pushes  (n_{2} * n_{1})/64: product (F26Dot6) 
Related instructions  DIV[ ] 
Multiplies the top two numbers on the stack. Pops two 26.6 numbers, n2 and n1, from the stack and pushes onto the stack the product of the two elements. The 52.12 result is shifted right by 6 bits and the high 26 bits are discarded yielding a 26.6 result.
NEG[] NEGate
Code Range  0x65 
Pops  n: pixel coordinate (F26Dot6) 
Pushes  n: negation of n1 (F26Dot6) 
Negates the number at the top of the stack.
Pops a number, n, from the stack and pushes the negated value of n onto the stack.
NEQ[] Not EQual
Code Range  0x55 
Pops  e2: stack element 
e1: stack element  
Pushes  b: Boolean value (uint32 in the range [0,1]) 
Related instructions  EQ[ ] 
Determines whether the two elements at the top of the stack are unequal.
Pops two numbers, e2 and e1, from the stack and compares them. If they are different, one, signifying TRUE is pushed onto the stack. If they are equal, zero, signifying FALSE is pushed onto the stack.
NOT[] logical NOT
Code Range  0x5C 
Pops  e: stack element 
Pushes  (not e): logical negation of e (uint32) 
Takes the logical negation of the number at the top of the stack.
Pops a number e from the stack and returns the result of a logical NOT operation performed on e. If e was zero, one is pushed onto the stack if e was nonzero, zero is pushed onto the stack.
NPUSHB[] PUSH N Bytes
Code Range  0x40 
From IS  n: number of bytes to push (1 byte interpreted as an integer) 
b1, b2,...bn: sequence of n bytes  
Pushes  b1, b2,...bn: sequence of n bytes each extended to 32 bits (uint32) 
Related instructions  NPUSHW[ ], PUSHB[ ], PUSHW[] 
Takes n bytes from the instruction stream and pushes them onto the stack.
Looks at the next byte in the instructions stream, n, and takes n unsigned bytes from the instruction stream, where n is an unsigned integer in the range (0 255), and pushes them onto the stack. The number of bytes to push, n, is not pushed onto the stack.
Each byte value is unsigned extended to 32 bits before being pushed onto the stack.
NPUSHW[] PUSH N Words
Code Range  0x41 
From IS  n: number of words to push (one byte interpreted as an integer) 
w1, w2,...wn: sequence of n words formed from pairs of bytes, the high byte appearing first  
Pushes  w1, w2,...wn: sequence of n words each extended to 32 bits (int32) 
Related instructions  NPUSHW[ ], PUSHB[ ] 
Takes n words from the instruction stream and pushes them onto the stack.
Looks at the next instruction stream byte n and takes n 16bit signed words from the instruction stream, where n is an unsigned integer in the range (0 255), and pushes them onto the stack. Each word is sign extended to 32 bits before being placed on the stack.The value n is not pushed onto the stack.
NROUND[ab] No ROUNDing of value
Code Range  0x6C  0x6F 
ab  distance type for engine characteristic compensation 
Pops  n_{1}: pixel coordinate (F26Dot6) 
Pushes  n_{2}: pixel coordinate (F26Dot6) 
Related instructions  ROUND[ ] 
Changes the values of the number at the top of the stack to compensate for the engine characteristics.
Pops a value, n1, from the stack and, possibly, increases or decreases its value to compensate for the engine characteristics established with the Boolean setting ab. The result, n_{2}, is pushed onto the stack.
NROUND[ab] derives its name from it relationship to ROUND[ab]. It does the same operation as ROUND[ab] except that it does not round the result obtained after compensating for the engine characteristics.
ODD[] ODD
Code Range  0x56 
Pops  e1: stack element (F26Dot6) 
Pushes  b: Boolean value 
Uses  round state 
Related instructions  EVEN[ ] 
Tests whether the number at the top of the stack is odd.
Pops a number, e1, from the stack and rounds it according to the current setting of the round state before testing it. The number is then truncated to an integer. If the truncated number is odd, one, signifying TRUE, is pushed onto the stack if it is even, zero, signifying FALSE is placed onto the stack.
OR[] logical OR
Code Range  0x5B 
Pops  e2: stack element e1: stack element 
Pushes  (e1 or e2): logical or of e1 and e2 (uint32) 
Related instructions  AND[ ] 
Takes the logical or of the two numbers at the top of the stack.
Pops two numbers, e2 and e1 off the stack and pushes onto the stack the result of a logical or operation between the two elements. Zero is pushed if both of the elements are FALSE (have the value zero). One is pushed if either both of the elements are TRUE (has a nonzero value).
POP[] POP top stack element
Code Range  0x21 
Pops  e: stack element 
Pushes   
Pops the top element from the stack.
PUSHB[abc] PUSH Bytes
Code Range  0xB0  0xB7 
abc  number of bytes to be pushed  1 
From IS  b0, b1, bn: sequence of n + 1 bytes where n = 4a+2b+c = abc2 
Pushes  b0, b1, ,bn: sequence of n + 1 bytes each extended to 32 bits (uint32) 
Related instructions  NPUSHB[ ], PUSHW[ ], NPUSHB[] 
Takes the specified number of bytes from the instruction stream and pushes them onto the interpreter stack.
The variables a, b, and c are binary digits representing numbers from 000 to 111 (07 in binary). The value 1 is automatically added to the abc figure to obtain the actual number of bytes pushed.
When byte values are pushed onto the stack they are nonsign extended with zeroes to form 32 bit numbers.
PUSHW[abc] PUSH Words
Code Range  0xB8  0xBF 
abc  number of words to be pushed  1. 
From IS  w0,w1, wn: sequence of n+1 words formed from pairs of bytes, the high byte appearing first 
Pushes  w0,w1,...wn: sequence of n+1 words each padded to 32 bits (uint32) 
Related instructions  NPUSHW[ ], PUSHB[ ] 
Takes the specified number of words from the instruction stream and pushes them onto the interpreter stack.
The variables a, b, and c are binary digits representing numbers from 000 to 111 (07 binary). The value 1 is automatically added to the abc figure to obtain the actual number of bytes pushed.
When word values are pushed onto the stack they are sign extended to 32 bits.
RCVT[] Read Control Value Table entry
Code Range  0x45 
Pops  location: CVT entry number (uint32) 
Pushes  value: CVT value (F26Dot6) 
Related instructions  WCVTP[ ], WCVTP[ ] 
Read a control value table entry and places its value onto the stack.
Pops a CVT location from the stack and pushes the value found in the location specified onto the stack.
RDTG[] Round Down To Grid
Code Range  0x7D 
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  round state 
Affects  MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[], ROUND[] 
Related instructions  RUTG[ ], RTG[], RTHG[], RTDG[], ROFF[] 
Sets the round state variable to down to grid. In this state, distances are first subjected to compensation for the engine characteristics and then truncated to an integer. If the result of the compensation and rounding would be to change the sign of the distance, the distance is set to 0.
ROFF[] Round OFF
Code Range  0x7A 
Pop   
Pushes   
Sets  round state 
Affects  MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[], ROUND[] 
Related instructions  RDTG[], RUTG[ ], RTG[], RTHG[], RTDG[] 
Sets the round state variable to round off. In this state engine compensation occurs but no rounding takes place. If engine compensation would change the sign of a distance, the distance is set to 0.
ROLL[] ROLL the top three stack elements
Code Range 0x8A  
Pops  a: top stack element 
b: second stack element from the top  
c: third stack element from the top  
Pushes  b: second stack element 
a: top stack element  
c: third stack element  
Related instructions  MINDEX[ ] 
Performs a circular shift of the top three stack elements.
Pops the top three stack elements, a, b, and c and performs a circular shift of these top three objects on the stack with the effect being to move the third element to the top of the stack and to move the first two elements down one position. ROLL is equivalent to MINDEX[] with the value 3 at the top of the stack.
ROUND[ab] ROUND value
Code Range  0x68  0x6B 
Flags  ab: distance type for engine characteristic compensation 
Pops  n1: device space distance (F26Dot6) 
Pushes  n2: device space distance (F26Dot6) 
Related instructions  NROUND[ ] 
Uses round state, freedom vector
Rounds the value at the top of the stack while compensating for the engine characteristics.
Pops a 26.6 fixed point number, n1, and, depending on the engine characteristics established by Booleans ab, the result is increased or decreased by a set amount. The number obtained is then rounded according to the current rounding state and pushed back onto the stack as n2.
Warning
In TrueType, rounding is symmetric about zero and includes compensation for printer dot size. See "Engine compensation using color" on page 265.
RS[] Read Store
Code Range  0x43 
Pops  n: storage area location (uint32) 
Pushes  v: storage area value (uint32) 
Related instructions  WS[ ] 
Reads the value in the specified storage area location and pushes that value onto the stack.
Pops a storage area location, n, from the stack and reads a 32bit value, v, from that location. The value read is pushed onto the stack. The number of available storage locations is specified in the 'maxp' table in the font file'.
RTDG[] Round To Double Grid
Code Range  0x3D 
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  round state 
Affects  MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[], ROUND[] 
Related instructions  RDTG[], ROFF[], RUTG[ ], RTG[], RTHG[] 
Sets the round state variable to double grid. In this state, distances are compensated for engine characteristics and then rounded to an integer or halfinteger, whichever is closest.
Warning
In TrueType, rounding is symmetric about zero and includes compensation for printer dot size. See "Engine compensation using color" on page 265.
RTG[] Round To Grid
Code Range  0x18 
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  round state 
Affects  MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[], ROUND[] 
Related instructions  RDTG[], ROFF[], RUTG[ ], RTDG[], RTHG[] 
Sets the round state variable to grid. In this state, distances are compensated for engine characteristics and rounded to the nearest integer.
Warning
In TrueType, rounding is symmetric about zero and includes compensation for printer dot size. See "Engine compensation using color" on page 265.
RTHG[] Round To Half Grid
Code Range  0x19 
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  round state 
Affects  MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[], ROUND[] 
Related instructions  RDTG[], ROFF[], RUTG[ ], RTDG[], RTG[] 
Sets the round state variable to half grid. In this state, distances are compensated for engine characteristics and rounded to the nearest half integer. If these operations change the sign of the distance, the distance is set to +1/2 or 1/2 according to the original sign of the distance.
Warning
In TrueType, rounding is symmetric about zero and includes compensation for printer dot size. See "Engine compensation using color" on page 265.
RUTG[] Round Up To Grid
Code Range  0x7C 
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  round state 
Affects  MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[], ROUND[] 
Related instructions  RDTG[], ROFF[], RTDG[], RTG[], RTHG[] 
Sets the round state variable to up to grid. In this state, after compensation for the engine characteristics, distances are rounded up to the closest integer. If the compensation and rounding would change the sign of the distance, the distance will be set to 0.
Warning
In TrueType, rounding is symmetric about zero and includes compensation for printer dot size. See "Engine compensation using color" on page 265.
S45ROUND[] Super ROUND 45 degrees
Code Range  0x77 
Pops  n: uint32 decomposed to obtain period, phase, threshold (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  round state 
Affects  MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[], ROUND[] 
Related instructions  SROUND[ ] 
S45ROUND[ ] is analogous to SROUND[ ]. The differ is that it uses a gridPeriod of pixels rather than 1 pixel. S45ROUND[ ] is useful for finely controlling rounding of distances that will be measured at a 45 angle to the xaxis.
Warning
In TrueType, rounding is symmetric about zero and includes compensation for printer dot size. "Engine compensation using color" on page 265.
Pops a number, n, from the stack and decomposes that number to obtain a period, a phase and a threshold used to set the value of the graphics state variable round state. Only the lower 8 bits of the argument n are used to obtain these values. The byte is encoded as shown in Table 2 below.
Table 2 SROUND[] byte encoding
period  phrase  threshold  

7  5  4  3  2  1  0 
The next three tables give the meaning associated with the possible values for the period, phase and threshold components of n in an S45ROUND[] instruction.
Table 3 : Setting the period
bit values  setting 

00  sqr(2)/2 pixels 
01  sqr(2) pixels 
10  2sqr(2) pixels 
11  Reserved 
Table 4: Setting the phase
bits  phase 

00  0 
01  period/4 
10  period/2 
11  period*3/4 
Table 5 : Setting the threshold
bits  threshold 

0000  period 1 
0001  3/8 * period 
0010  2/8 * period 
0011  1/8 * period 
0100  0/8 * period = 0 
0101  1/8 * period 
0110  2/8 * period 
0111  3/8 * period 
1000  4/8 * period 
1001  5/8 * period 
1010  6/8 * period 
1011  7/8 * period 
1100  8/8 * period = period 
1101  9/8 * period 
1110  10/8 * period 
1111  11/8 * period 
SANGW[] Set ANGle Weight
Code Range  0x7E 
Pops  weight: value for angle weight (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  angle weight 
Related  instructions AA[ ] 
Pops a 32 bit integer, weight, from the stack and sets the value of the angle weight state variable accordingly. This instruction is anachronistic. Except for popping a single stack element, it has no effect.
SCANCTRL[] SCAN conversion ConTRoL
Code Range  0x85 
Pops  n: flags indicating when to turn on dropout control mode 
Pushes   
Sets  scan control 
Related instructions  SCANTYPE[ ] 
Pops a number, n, which is decomposed to a set of flags specifying the dropout control mode. SCANCTRL is used to set the value of the graphics state variable scan control which in turn determines whether the scan converter will activate dropout control for this glyph. Use of the dropout control mode is determined by three conditions:
 Is the glyph rotated?
 Is the glyph stretched?
 Is the current setting for ppem less than a specified threshold?
The interpreter pops a word from the stack and looks at the lower 13 bits.
Bits 07 represent the threshold value for ppem. In conjunction with bit 8, a value of FF in bits 07 means invoke dropout control for all sizes. Sia value of 15 in bits 07 means invoke dropout control below 16 pixels per em. Note that 0xFE or 254 is the largest number of pixels per em for which dropout control can be selectively invoked.
Bits 813 are used to specify when to dropout control. Bits 8, 9 and 10 are used to turn on the dropout control mode (assuming other conditions do not block it). Bits 11, 12, and 13 are used to turn off the dropout mode unless other conditions force it.
Bit  Meaning If set 

8  Set dropout control to TRUE if other conditions do not block and ppem is less than or equal to the threshold value 
9  Set dropout control to TRUE if other conditions do not block and the glyph is rotated 
10  Set dropout control to TRUE if other conditions do not block and the glyph is stretched. 
11  Set dropout control to FALSE unless ppem is less than or equal to the threshold value. 
12  Set dropout control to FALSE unless the glyph is rotated. 
13  Set dropout control to FALSE unless the glyph is stretched 
For example, the values given below have the effect stated.
0x0  No dropout control is invoked 
0x1FF  Always do dropout control 
0xA10  Do dropout control if the glyph is rotated and has less than 16 pixels per em 
The scan converter can operate in either a "normal" mode or in a "fix dropout" mode depending on the value of a set of enabling and disabling flags.
SCANTYPE[] SCANTYPE
Code Range  0x8D 
Pops  n: stack element 
Pushes   
Sets  scan_control 
Related instructions  SCANCTRL[ ] 
Used to choose between dropout control with subs and without stubs.
Pops a stack element consisting of a16bit integer extended to 32 bits. The value of this integer is used to determine which rules the scan converter will use. If the value of the argument is 2, the nondropout control scan converter will be used. If the value of the integer is 0 or 1, the dropout control mode will be set. More specifically,
if n=0 rules 1 and 2 are invoked (dropout control scan conversion including stubs)
if n=1 rules 1 and 3 are invoked (dropout control scan conversion excluding stubs)
if n=2 rule 1 is invoked (fast scan conversion)
The scan conversion rules are shown here:
Rule 1
If a pixel's center falls within or on the glyph outline, that pixel is turned on and becomes part of that glyph.
Rule 2
If a scan line between two adjacent pixel centers (either vertical or horizontal) is intersected by both an onTransition contour and an offTransition contour and neither of the pixels was already turned on by rule 1, turn on the leftmost pixel (horizontal scan line) or the bottommost pixel (vertical scan line)
Rule 3
Apply Rule 2 only if the two contours continue to intersect other scan lines in both directions. That is, do not turn on pixels for 'stubs'. The scanline segments that form a square with the intersected scan line segment are examined to verify that they are intersected by two contours. It is possible that these could be different contours than the ones intersecting the dropout scan line segment. This is very unlikely but may have to be controlled with gridfitting in some exotic glyphs.
SCFS[] Sets Coordinate From the Stack using projection vector and freedom vector
Code Range  0x48 
Pops  c: coordinate value (F26Dot6) 
p: point number (uint32)  
Pushes   
Uses  zp2, freedom vector, projection vector 
Related instructions  GC[ ] 
Moves a point to the position specified by the coordinate value given on the stack.
Pops a coordinate value, c, and a point number, p, and moves point p from its current position along the freedom vector so that its component along the projection vector becomes the value popped off the stack.
This instruction can be used to "create" points in the twilight zone.
In the illustration below, point p is moved along the freedom vector until its coordinate on the projection vector has the value c.
SCVTCI[] Set Control Value Table CutIn
Code Range  0x1D 
Pops  n: value for cutin (F26Dot6) 
Pushes   
Sets  control value cutin 
Affects  MIAP, MIRP 
Establish a new value for the control value table cutin.
Pops a value, n, from the stack and sets the control value cutin to n. Increasing the value of the cutin will increase the range of sizes for which CVT values will be used instead of the original outline value.
SDB[] Set Delta Base in the graphics state
Code Range  0x5E 
Pops  n: value for the delta base (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  delta base 
Affects  DELTAP1[], DELTAP2[], DELTAP3[], DELTAC1[], DELTAC2[], DELTAC3[] 
Related instructions  SDS[ ] 
Establishes a new value for the delta base state variable thereby changing the range of values over which a DELTA[] instruction will have an affect.
Pops a number, n, and sets delta base to the value n. The default for delta base is 9.
SDPVTL[a] Set Dual Projection Vector To Line
Code Range  0x86  0x87 
a  0: Vector is parallel to line 
1: Vector is perpendicular to line  
Pops  p2: point number (uint32) 
p1: point number (uint32)  
Pushes   
Sets  dual projection vector, projection vector, zp2 with p2, zp1 with p1 
Related instructions  SPVTL[ ] 
Sets a second projection vector based upon the original position of two points. The new vector will point in a direction that is parallel to the line defined from p2 to p1. The projection vector is also set in in a direction that is parallel to the line from p2 to p1 but it is set using the current position of those points.
Pops two point numbers from the stack and uses them to specify a line that defines a second, dual projection vector. This dual projection vector uses coordinates from the original outline before any instructions are executed. It is used only with the IP[], GC[], MD[], MDRP[] and MIRP[] instructions. The dual projection vector is used in place of the projection vector in these instructions. This continues until some instruction sets the projection vector again.
SDS[] Set Delta Shift in the graphics state
Code Range  0x5F 
Pops  n: value for the delta shift (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  delta shift 
Affects  DELTAP1[], DELTAP2[], DELTAP3[], DELTAC1[], DELTAC2[], DELTAC3[] 
Related instructions  SDB[ ] 
Establish a new value for the delta shift state variable thereby changing the step size of the DELTA[] instructions.
Pops a value n from the stack and sets delta shift to n. The default for delta shift is 3.
SFVFS[] Set Freedom Vector From Stack
Code  0x0B 
Pops  y: y component of freedom vector (F2Dot14) 
x: x component of freedom vector (F2Dot14)  
Pushes   
Sets  freedom vector 
Related instructions  SFVTL[ ], SFVTPV[ ], SFVTCA[ ] 
Changes the direction of the freedom vector using values take from the stack and thereby changing the direction in which points can move.
Sets the direction of the freedom vector using the values x and y taken from the stack. The vector is set so that its projections onto the x and y axes are x and y, which are specified as signed (two's complement) fixedpoint (2.14) numbers. The value (x2 + y2) must be equal to 1 (0x4000).
SFVTCA[a] Set Freedom Vector to Coordinate Axis
Code range  0x04  0x05 
a  0: set the freedom vector to the yaxis 
1: set the freedom vector to the xaxis  
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  freedom vector 
Related instructions  SFVFS[ ], SFVTL[ ], SFVTPV[ ] 
Sets the freedom vector to one of the coordinate axes depending upon the value of the flag a.
SFVTL[a] Set Freedom Vector To Line
Code Range  0x08  0x09 
a  0: set freedom vector to be parallel to the line segment defined by points p1 and p2 
1: set freedom vector perpendicular to the line segment defined by points p1 and p2; the vector is rotated counter clockwise 90 degrees  
Pops  p2: point number (uint32) 
p1: point number (uint32)  
Pushes   
Sets  freedom vector 
Uses  zp1 points to the zone containing point p1 zp2 points to the zone containing point p2 
Related instructions  SFVTPV[ ], SFVFS[ ], SFVTCA[ ] 
Change the value of the freedom vector using the direction specified by the line whose end points are taken from the stack. The effect is to change the direction in which points can move to be parallel to that line. The order in which the points are chosen is significant. Reversing the order will reverse the direction of the freedom vector.
Pops two point numbers p2 and p1 from the stack and sets the freedom vector to a unit vector parallel or perpendicular to the line segment defined by points p1 and p2 and pointing from p2 to p1.
If the Boolean a has the value 0, the freedom vector is parallel to the line from p2 to p1.
If the Boolean a has the value one, the freedom vector is perpendicular to the line from p2 to p1. More precisely, the freedom vector is obtained by rotating the vector that is parallel to the line 90 counter clockwise.
SFVTPV[] Set Freedom Vector To Projection Vector
Code  0x0E 
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  freedom vector 
Related instructions  SFVFS[ ], SFVTL[ ], SFVTCA[ ] 
Sets the freedom vector to be the same as the projection vector. This means that movement and measurement will be in the same direction.
SHC[a] SHift Contour using reference point
Code Range  0x34  0x35 
a  0: uses rp2 in the zone pointed to by zp1 
1: uses rp1 in the zone pointed to by zp0  
Pops  c: contour to be shifted (uint32) 
Pushes   
Uses  zp0 with rp1 or zp1 with rp2 depending on flag zp2 with contour c freedom vector, projection vector 
Related instructions  SHP[ ], SHZ[ ] 
Shifts a contour by the amount that the reference point was shifted.
Pops a number, c, and shifts every point on contour c by the same amount that the reference point has been shifted. Each point is shifted along the freedom vector so that the distance between the new position of the point and the old position of that point is the same as the distance between the current position of the reference point and the original position of the reference point. The distance is measured along the projection vector. If the reference point is one of the points defining the contour, the reference point is not moved by this instruction.
This instruction is similar to SHP[], but every point on the contour is shifted.
In the illustration below, the triangular contour formed by points ,, and is shifted by the amount, d, that reference point rp was moved from its original position. The new contour p1, p2, p3 retains the original shape but has been translated in space, along the freedom vector by the amount, d.
SHP[a] SHift Point using reference point
Code Range  0x32  0x33 
a  0: uses rp2 in the zone pointed to by zp1 
1: uses rp1 in the zone pointed to by zp0  
Pops  p1, p2, , ploopvalue: point to be shifted (uint32) 
Pushes   
Uses  zp0 with rp1 or zp1 with rp2 depending on flag zp2 with point p loop, freedom vector, projection vector 
Shifts points specified by the amount the reference point has already been shifted.
Pops point numbers, p1, p2, , ploopvalue, and shifts those points by the same amount that the reference point has been shifted. Each point pi is moved along the freedom vector so that the distance between the new position of point pi and the current position of point pi is the same as the distance between the current position of the reference point and the original position of the reference point.
In the illustration below, the distance between the current position of the reference point and its original position is d. Line LL' is drawn perpendicular to the projection vector at a distance d from point A'. Point p is moved along the freedom vector to the point where the vector intersects with line LL'. The distance from point A' to B', d, is now the same as the distance from A to B.
SHPIX[] SHift point by a PIXel amount
Code Range  0x38 
Pops  d: magnitude of the shift (F26Dot6) 
p1, p2, , ploopvalue: point to be shifted (uint32)  
Pushes   
Uses  zp2, loop, freedom vector 
Related instructions  SHP[ ] 
Shift the specified points by the specified amount.
Pops point numbers p1, p2, , ploopvalue and an amount. Shifts each point pi by amount d.
SHPIX[ ] is unique in relying solely on the direction of the freedom vector It makes no use of the projection vector. Measurement is made in the direction of the freedom vector.
In the example below, point p is moved d pixels along the freedom vector.
SHZ[a] SHift Zone using reference point
Code Range  0x36  0x37 
a  0: the reference point rp2 is in the zone pointed to by zp1 
1: the reference point rp1 is in the zone pointed to by zp0  
Pops  e: zone to be shifted (uint32) 
Pushes   
Uses  zp0 with rp1 or zp1 with rp2 depending on flag freedom vector, projection vector 
Related instructions  SHP[ ], SHC[ ] 
Shifts all of the points in the specified zone by the amount that the reference point has been shifted.
Pops a zone number, e, and shifts the points in the specified zone (Z1 or Z0) by the same amount that the reference point has been shifted. The points in the zone are shifted so that the distance between the new position of the shifted points and their old position is the same as the distance between the current position of the reference point and the original position of the reference point.
SHZ[a] uses zp0 with rp1 or zp1 with rp2. This instruction is similar to SHC[ ], but all points in the zone are shifted, not just the points on a single contour.
SLOOP[] Set LOOP variable
Code Range  0x17 
Pops  n: value for loop graphics state variable (integer) 
Pushes   
Sets  loop 
Affects  ALIGNRP[], FLIPPT[], IP[], SHP[], SHPIX[] 
Related instructions  LOOPCALL[ ] 
Changes the value of the loop variable thereby changing the number of times the affected instructions will execute if called.
Pops a value, n, from the stack and sets the loop variable count to that value. The loop variable works with the SHP[a], SHPIX[a], IP[ ], and ALIGNRP[]. The value n indicates the number of times the instruction is to be repeated. After the instruction executes the required number of times, the loop variable is reset to its default value of 1. Setting the loop variable to zero is an error.
SMD[] Set Minimum Distance
Code Range  0x1A 
Pops  distance: value for minimum_distance (F26Dot6) 
Pushes   
Sets  minimum distance 
Establishes a new value for the minimum distance, the smallest possible value to which distances will be rounded. An appropriate setting for this variable can prevent distances from rounding to zero and therefore disappearing when gridfitting takes place.
Pops a 26.6 value from the stack and sets the minimum distance variable to that value.
SPVFS[] Set Projection Vector From Stack
Code Range  0x0A 
Pops  y: y component of projection vector (F2Dot14) x: x component of projection vector (F2Dot14) 
Pushes   
Sets  projection vector 
Related instructions  SPVTL[ ], SPVTCA[ ] 
Establishes a new value for the projection vector using values taken from the stack.
Pops two numbers y and x representing the y an x components of the projection vector. The values x and y are 2.14 numbers extended to 32 bits. Sets the direction of the projection vector, using values x and y taken from the stack, so that its projections onto the x and yaxes are x and y, which are specified as signed (two's complement) fixedpoint (2.14) numbers. The value (x2 + y2) must be equal to 1 (0x4000).
SPVTCA[a] Set Projection Vector To Coordinate Axis
Code range  0x02  0x03 
a  0: set the projection vector to the yaxis 
1: set the projection vector to the xaxis  
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  projection vector 
Related instructions  SPVTL[ ], SPVFS[ ] 
Sets the projection vector to one of the coordinate axes depending on the value of the flag a.
SPVTL[a] Set Projection Vector To Line
Code Range  0x06  0x07 
a  0: sets projection vector to be parallel to line segment from p2 to p1 
1: sets projection vector to be perpendicular to line segment from p2 to p1; the vector is rotated counter clockwise 90 degrees  
Pops  p2: point number (uint32) 
p1: point number (uint32)  
Pushes   
Uses  point p1 in the zone pointed at by zp1 point p2 in the zone pointed at by zp2 
Sets  projection vector 
Related instructions  SPVFS[ ], SPVTCA[ ] 
Changes the direction of the projection vector to that specified by the line defined by the endpoints taken from the stack. The order in which the points are specified is significant Reversing the order of the points will reverse the direction of the projection vector.
Pops two point numbers, p2 and p1 and sets the projection vector to a unit vector parallel or perpendicular to the line segment from point p2 to point p1 and pointing from p2 to p1.
SROUND[] Super ROUND
Code Range  0x76 
Pops  n: number decomposed to obtain period, phase, threshold (Eint8) 
Pushes   
Sets  round state 
Affects  MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[], ROUND[] 
Related instructions  S45ROUND[ ] 
Provides for fine control over the effects of the round state variable by directly setting the values of the three components of the round state: period, phase, and threshold.
Pops a number, n, from the stack and decomposes that number to obtain a period, a phase and a threshold used to set the value of the graphics state variable round state. Only the lower 8 bits of the argument n are used to obtain these values. The byte is encoded as shown in Table 8 below.
Table 8: SROUND byte encoding
period  phase  threshold  

7  6  5  4  3  2  1 
The period specifies the length of the separation or space between rounded values. The phase specifies the offset of the rounded values from multiples of the period. The threshold specifies the part of the domain, prior to a potential rounded value, that is mapped onto that value.Additional information on rounding can be found in "Rounding" on page 266.
For SROUND[] the grid period used to compute the period shown in Table 9 is equal to 1.0 pixels. Table 10 lists the possible values for the phase and Table 11 the possible values for the threshold.,
Table 9: Setting the period
bit value  setting 

00  1/2 pixel 
01  1 pixel 
10  2 pixel 
11  Reserved 
Table 10: Setting the phase
bit value  setting 

00  0 
01  period/4 
10  period/2 
11  period*3/4 
Table 11: Setting the threshold
bit value  setting 

0000  period 1 
0001  3/8 * period 
0010  2/8 * period 
0011  1/8 * period 
0100  0/8 * period = 0 
0101  1/8 * period 
0110  2/8 * period 
0111  3/8 * period 
1000  4/8 * period 
1001  5/8 * period 
1010  6/8 * period 
1011  7/8 * period 
1100  8/8 * period = period 
1101  9/8 * period 
1110  10/8 * period 
1111  11/8 * period 
SRP0[] Set Reference Point 0
Code Range  0x10 
Pops  p: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  rp0 
Affects  ALIGNRP[], MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[] MSIRP[] 
Related instructions  SRP1[ ], SRP2[ ] 
Sets a new value for reference point 0.
Pops a point number, p, from the stack and sets rp0 to p.
SRP1[] Set Reference Point 1
Code Range  0x11 
Pops  p: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  rp1 
Affects  IP[], MDAP[], MIAP[], MSIRP[], SHC[], SHP[], SHZ 
Related instructions  SRP0[], SRP2[ ] 
Sets a new value for reference point 1.
Pops a point number, p, from the stack and sets rp1 to p.
SRP2[] Set Reference Point 2
Code Range  0x12 
Pops  p: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  rp2 
Affects  IP[], SHC[], SHP[], SHZ[] 
Related instructions  SRP1[ ], SRP0[] 
Sets a new value for reference point 2.
Pops a point number, p, from the stack and sets rp2 to p.
SSW[] Set Single Width
Code Range  0x1F 
Pops  n: value for single width value (FUnit) 
Pushes   
Sets  single width value 
Related instructions  SSWCI[ ] 
Establishes a new value for the single width value state variable. The single width value is used instead of a control value table entry when the difference between the single width value and the given CVT entry is less than the single width cutin.
Pops a 32 bit integer value, n, from the stack and sets the single width value in the graphics state to n. The value n is expressed in FUnits.
SSWCI[] Set Single Width CutIn
Code Range  0x1E 
Pops  n: value for single width cutin (F26Dot6) 
Pushes   
Sets  single width cutin 
Affects  MIAP[], MIRP[] 
Related instructions  SSW[ ] 
Establishes a new value for the single width cutin, the distance difference at which the interpreter will ignore the values in the control value table in favor of the single width value.
Pops a 32 bit integer value, n, and sets the single width cutin to n.
SUB[] SUBtract
Code Range  0x61 
Pops  n2: subtrahend (F26Dot6) 
n1: minuend (F26Dot6)  
Pushes  (n1  n2): difference (F26Dot6) 
Related instructions  ADD[ ] 
Subtracts the number at the top of the stack from the number below it.
Pops two 26.6 numbers, n1 and n2, from the stack and pushes the difference between the two elements onto the stack.
SVTCA[a] Set freedom and projection Vectors To Coordinate Axis
Code range  0x00  0x01 
a  0: set vectors to the yaxis 1: set vectors to the xaxis 
Pops   
Pushes   
Sets  projection vector freedom vector 
Related instructions  SPTCA[ ], SFVTCA[ ] 
Sets both the projection vector and freedom vector to the same coordinate axis causing movement and measurement to be in the same direction. The setting of the Boolean variable a determines the choice of axis.
SVTCA[ ] is a shortcut that replaces the SFVTCA[ ] and SPVTCA[ ] instructions. As a result, SVTCA[1] is equivalent to SFVTCA[1] followed by SPVTCA[1].
SWAP[] SWAP the top two elements on the stack
Code Range  0x23 
Pops  e2: stack element (StkElt) e1: stack element (StkElt) 
Pushes  e2: stack element (StkElt) e1: stack element (StkElt) 
Swaps the top two stack elements.
Pops two elements, e2 and e1, from the stack and reverses their order making the old top element the second from the top and the old second element the top element.
SZP0[] Set Zone Pointer 0
Code Range  0x13 
Pops  n: zone number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  zp0 
Affects  AA[], ALIGNPTS[], ALIGNRP[], DELTAC1[], DELTAC2[], DELTAC3[], DELTAP1[], DELTAP2[], DELTAP3[], FLIPPT[], FLIPRGOFF[], FLIPRGON[], IP[], ISECT[], MD[], MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[], MSIRP[], SHC[], SHE[], SHP[], SHZ[], UTP[] 
Related instructions  SZP1[ ], SZP2[ ], SZPS[ ] 
Establishes a new value for zp0. It can point to either the glyph zone or the twilight zone.
Pops a zone number, n, from the stack and sets zp0 to the zone with that number. If n has the value zero, zp0 points to zone 0 (the twilight zone). If n has the value one, zp0 points to zone 1 (the glyph zone). Any other value for n is an error.
SZP1[] Set Zone Pointer 1
Code Range  0x14 
Pops  n: zone number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  zp1 
Affects  ALIGNPTS[], ALIGNRP[], IP[], ISECT[], MD[], MDRP[], MIRP[], MSIRP[], SDPVTL[], SFVTL[], SHC[], SHP[], SHZ[], SPVTL[] 
Related instructions  SZP0[ ], SZP2[ ], SZPS[ ] 
Establishes a new value for zp1. It can point to either the glyph zone or the twilight zone.
Pops a zone number, n, from the stack and sets zp1 to the zone with that number. If n has the value zero, zp1 points to zone 0 (the twilight zone). If n has the value one, zp1 points to zone 1 (the glyph zone). Any other value for n is an error.
SZP2[] Set Zone Pointer 2
Code Range  0x15 
Pops  n: zone number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  zp2 
Affects  IP[], ISECT[], IUP[], GC[], SDPVTL[], SHC[], SHP[], SFVTL[], SHPIX[], SPVTL[], SC[] 
Related instructions  SZP0[ ], SZP1[ ], SZPS[ ] 
Establishes a new value for zp2. It can point to either the glyph zone or the twilight zone.
Pops a zone number, n, from the stack and sets zp2 to the zone with that number. If n has the value zero, zp2 points to zone 0 (the twilight zone). If n has the value one, zp2 points to zone 1 (the glyph zone). Any other value for n is an error.
SZPS[] Set Zone PointerS
Code Range  0x16 
Pops  n: zone number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  zp0, zp1, zp2 
Affects  ALIGNPTS[], ALIGNRP[], DELTAC1[], DELTAC2[], DELTAC3[], DELTAP1[], DELTAP2[], DELTAP3[], FLIPPT[], FLIPRGOFF[], FLIPRGON[], GC[], IP[], ISECT[], IUP[], MD[], MDAP[], MDRP[], MIAP[], MIRP[], MSIRP[], SC[], SDPVTL[], SFVTL[], SHPIX[], SPVTL[], SHC[], SHP[], SHZ[], SPVTL[], UTP[] 
Related instructions  SZP0[ ], SZP1[ ], SZP2[ ] 
Sets all three zone pointers to refer to either the glyph zone or the twilight zone.
Pops an integer n from the stack and sets all of the zone pointers to point to the zone with that number. If n is 0, all three zone pointers will point to zone 0 (the twilight zone). If n is 1, all three zone pointers will point to zone 1 (the glyph zone). Any other value for n is an error.
UTP[] UnTouch Point
Code Range  0x29 
Pops  p: point number (uint32) 
Pushes   
Uses  zp0 with point p, freedom vector 
Affects  IUP[ ] 
Marks a point as untouched thereby causing the IUP[ ] instruction to affect its location.
Pops a point number, p, and marks point p as untouched. A point may be touched in the xdirection, the ydirection, or in both the x and ydirections. The position of the freedom vector determines whether the point is untouched in the xdirection, the ydirection, or both. If the vector is set to the xaxis, the point will be untouched in the xdirection. If the vector is set to the yaxis, the point will be untouched in the ydirection. Otherwise the point will be untouched in both directions.
A points that is marked as untouched will be moved by an IUP[ ] instruction even if the point was previously touched.
WCVTF[] Write Control Value Table in Funits
Code Range  0x70 
Pops  n: number in FUnits (uint32) l: control value table location (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  control value table entry 
Related instructions  WCVTP[ ] 
Writes a scaled F26Dot6 value to the specified control value table location.
Pops an integer value, n, and a control value table location l from the stack. The FUnit value is scaled to the current point size and resolution and put in the control value table. This instruction assumes the value is expressed in FUnits and not pixels.
Since the CVT has been scaled to pixel values, the value taken from the stack is scaled to the appropriate pixel value before being written to the table.
WCVTP[] Write Control Value Table in Pixel units
Code Range  0x44 
Pops  v: value in pixels (F26Dot6) l: control value table location (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  control value table entry 
Related instructions  WCVTF[ ] 
Writes the value in pixels into the control value table location specified.
Pops a value v and a control value table location l from the stack and puts that value in the specified location in the control value table. This instruction assumes the value taken from the stack is in pixels and not in FUnits. The value is written to the CVT table unchanged. The location l must be less than the number of storage locations specified in the 'maxp' table in the font file.
WS[] Write Store
Code Range  0x42 
Pops  v: storage area value (uint32) l: storage area location (uint32) 
Pushes   
Sets  storage area value 
Related instructions  RS[ ] 
Write the value taken from the stack to the specified storage area location.
Pops a storage area location l, followed by a value, v. Writes this 32bit value into the storage area location indexed by l. The value must be less than the number of storage locations specified in the 'maxp' table of the font file.