Disability and Innovation: The Universal Benefits of Accessible Design
White House Champion of Change, Forbes 30 under 30 leader, and BBC Women of Africa Hero, Haben Girma is an acclaimed accessibility and inclusion advocate. The first deaf blind person to graduate from Harvard Law School, Haben champions equal access to information for people with disabilities, earning her recognition from both President Obama and President Clinton. Through this presentation, Haben will share how designing with accessibility in mind benefits not just users with disabilities, but developers, too. Throughout history, disability has sparked innovation, leading to breakthroughs in wide-ranging inventions from keyboards to telephones. Hear Haben's remarkable story and learn how incorporating universal access principles into product development can increase access for people with disabilities while simultaneously improving the overall usability of your app.
[ Music ]
Ladies and gentlemen, please join me in welcoming
on stage, Haben Girma.
Thank for the introduction Felice.
My name is Haben Girma.
I work as an accessibility and inclusion advocate,
teaching organizations and individuals to design
with accessibility in mind.
Deaf-blindness encompasses a wide spectrum
of vision and hearing loss.
I have a little bit of hearing, and a little bit of vision.
I see maybe about 1% of what the average sighted person sees.
By identifying as deaf-blind, I'm telling the world
that I'm part of a community where knowledge gained
through touch is equal in value to knowledge gained
through sight, sound, or other means.
Our world is incredibly diverse, and when we design apps,
that celebrate that diversity, and recognize
that diversity, we all benefit.
So I identify as deaf-blind to tell the world
to design non-visual access and non-auditory access
to help maximize communication.
This is tricky for some people.
One of my best friends, when she first met me,
wasn't sure how to say hi.
She was sitting next to me,
in one of our classes at law school.
And she waved hi, but I couldn't see it.
And she voice hi, and I couldn't hear it.
It was our first day of international law class,
and she wasn't thinking about international law.
She was thinking about how to get my attention.
And after a while, during the class, she came up with a plan.
She did the most logical thing for a student.
She went onto Facebook and sent me a message saying Hi, Haben,
I'm sitting right next to you.
Technology has facilitated access communication
for a lot of people.
And when apps are designed with accessibility in mind,
iMessages, mail, other communication tools,
people with disabilities like myself can use them and are able
to connect and share information with people.
I saw that Facebook message my friend sent later, and I reached
out to her and we were able to communicate
and I explained the various communication methods I use.
Technology facilitates connections,
when both parties are willing and interested
in practicing inclusion.
I want to share a photo, that highlights some
of the communication methods I use.
In this photo I'm standing at a table, and I'm reading
from a digital Braille display.
Digital Braille, comes through a device with mechanical pins
that pop up to form Braille letters.
And I read these letters by feeling the dots.
Braille is a tool, not a language.
I primarily use English Braille, I can read Spanish Braille,
and I've seen Braille in many different languages.
I was once on a ferry going from Italy to Greece,
and I remembered feeling a bit lost on the ferry because all
of the signs were in Greek Braille.
So Braille is a tool and the Braille display is a device
that produces this information Braille.
Also in the photo, President Obama is standing at the table
and he's typing on an Apple wireless keyboard
and what's being typed is being sent
to the digital Braille display.
I'm reading what's being typed
and this is a communication method that I developed.
Deaf individuals have been developing communication tools
for hundreds of years.
Communities around the world, have developed sign languages.
In the United States,
the dominant sign language is American Sign Language.
Which is heavily influenced by French Sign Language.
My brother is deaf-blind.
And when he communicates with me he uses sign language.
When he's signing I put my hand over his hand,
and feel what he is signing.
When he wants to listen to me, he'll put his hand over my hand,
and feel what I'm signing.
Tactile sign language is another form of communication
that has developed, that has been developed
by the deaf-blind community.
Another form is print on palm, where people write on palms,
they could write in English characters, Mandarin
and other forms of characters.
Humans are incredibly creative, we design new ways for each
of us to connect and engage and share information.
Another form of communication is dance.
And dance is expressed in many different forms.
Some deaf individuals who are sighted will watch the other
dancers and will pick up the beats
by watching the other dancers.
Other individuals will watch the musicians, and pick up the beat
by watching the fingers and instruments of the musicians.
People are very creative and find solutions.
For me, dance is all about the connection.
Salsa is like a kind of sign language
and people communicate information, rhythm, beat,
music, emotions, through their hands.
Some of the signals in salsa, are visual
and the people I dance with will switch them around
and switch those visual signals to physical signals.
Through dance we celebrate joy, connection and community.
Communities that celebrate diversity will find ways
to be inclusive, they'll adapt strategies
to make sure everyone can participate and be involved.
So dance is one community in which I belong,
that practices inclusion.
When I join a community,
the first question people usually ask me is how do
The second question people usually ask me is,
have you heard of Helen Keller?
Helen Keller was an amazing advocate,
she lived from 1880 to 1968.
She advocated for women's rights,
disability's rights, worker's rights.
She spent her whole life advocating, and yet many stories
of Helen reduce her to one theme.
She succeeded despite her disability.
Disability never holds anyone back,
disability is not something that people need to overcome.
The barriers that exist are created by society.
And it's up to every single one of us to work together
to remove those barriers.
Helen was successful because she is part of communities
that chose to practice inclusion.
She went to Radcliffe College,
and Radcliffe provided books in Braille.
And made sure she had interpreters.
They worked to ensure access and inclusion.
Not every community practices inclusion.
Harvard wouldn't admit Helen.
Back then Harvard only admitted men.
Helen's disability didn't hold her back,
her gender didn't hold her back, it was the community of Harvard
that chose to deny access to women.
As another example, Helen's family would not allow her
to experience marriage.
Helen fell in love, secretly got engaged,
but her family prevented her
from marrying the person she loved.
Helen's disability didn't stop her from feeling love.
She wrote extensively about love.
But her family, her community,
chose to create insurmountable barriers.
All the barriers that exist are created by society.
Of members of society, we play a role in removing those barriers
and making sure that everyone can access information
and has access to opportunities.
We've come a long way since Helen's time.
More and more communities celebrate diverse families
Harvard eventually made the smart decision
to open its doors to women.
And now technology creates more opportunities
for people to connect.
I often wonder, what would Helen have accomplished,
what freedom would she have enjoyed, if she had access
to the world of apps that were accessible
to people with disabilities?
One of the features Apple offers,
for developers, is called VoiceOver.
And VoiceOver is a screen reader that,
when an app is compatible with, will produce information
in speech or digital Braille for users of the app.
I'm going to share a demonstration video
that shows how VoiceOver works.
Apple has a variety of accessibility features,
VoiceOver is one which you just saw.
Another one, support for Dynamic Type.
When you support Dynamic Type, people who are low vision
and need larger font sizes can have better access to your apps.
Another feature is Captioning.
Support for Captioning allows individuals who are deaf or hard
of hearing, to access the audio content of your videos.
Support for Assistive Devices like Braille displays,
switch controls, switch controls benefit individuals
with limited mobility.
So these are some of the features that if you design
for your apps to be accessible, will allow greater access
for people with disabilities.
But don't stop there, keep innovating, keep thinking
of new ways for people to access your information.
Our goal is to have a world where all the apps
in the app store, are accessible.
Right now if I need an app, from anything from travel
to shopping, I need to spend hours looking
for an accessible app.
And sometimes, there isn't an accessible option.
Our goal is to have every app
and I mean every single app to be accessible.
Several years ago, I went to China for the first time,
and when I arrived in my hotel
in Beijing I did what I always do when I get somewhere new.
I explored and while exploring the room,
I discovered an unidentifiable object.
It felt a little like a piece of fruit,
but I've never seen anything like it before.
I was wondering, should I taste it?
I was super curious to find out what it was,
but not curious enough to taste an unknown object [laughter].
So instead I got out my camera, on my iPhone, took a picture,
and texted it to a friend, asking what on earth is this?
Is it safe to eat?
I learned that it was dragon fruit.
And I discovered I like dragon fruit.
Now imagine a lot of people thinking,
why would a camera app need to be accessible?
Why would blind people ever take pictures?
We take pictures for the same reasons sighted people
To capture moments, to share experiences with friends.
Our goal is to make sure all apps are accessible.
Try not to make assumptions about what people
with disabilities can and can't do.
Instead, strive for inclusion.
And after you strive for inclusion for your apps,
here are a few things to keep in mind.
It helps to plan for accessibility from the start.
It's much easier, it saves you resources.
If you plan for accessibility, from the very start.
I'll give an example from the physical world.
Imagine someone builds a skyscraper
but realizes they forgot to put an elevator, tears down part
of the building, and then installs an elevator.
That's more time consuming and drains resources,
it would be much easier to just plan
for an elevator from the start.
Same principle applies in the digital world.
You save yourself resources
when you can have accessibility from the very start.
And there are engineers with disabilities,
designers with disabilities, testers with disabilities,
to help you with the process.
There are all so many disability organizations in the U.S.
and around the world, to help provide feedback,
engage with us, from initial design to app updates.
Apple also has a lot of resources
to help you with this process.
Their online tutorials, documentation,
accessibility guidelines for iOS.
Tomorrow evening here, at WWDC,
we're going to have an accessibility mixer come
and join us.
I'll be there to answer questions,
lots of accessibility people will be there,
including developers who've gone through this process
of making sure their apps are accessible.
So these are resources that are available to you
and will help you design apps that are accessible.
Accessibility benefits your consumers,
but it also benefits you.
Accessibility has many benefits for you because one,
people with disabilities are the largest minority group.
About 1 in 5 Americans lives with a disability.
So when you design with accessibility in mind,
you get access to more customers,
more people can benefit from your services.
Another thing to keep in mind is accessibility increases access
for everyone including non-disabled users.
For example, when you caption your videos,
and you add alternative text to your images,
more text is associated with your content.
And because of that, it's easier for people to find your content
through powerful keyword searches.
The videos from WWDC are captioned and those captions,
produce a transcript and anyone can do a keyword search
and find exactly where in the video a topic was discussed.
This is an example of how a feature
that benefits the deaf community,
also benefits the greater community.
But the most important point is innovation.
Disability drives innovation.
When you think about new ways of accessing information,
new ways for people to connect, and engage with each other,
you're going to find yourself designing the next best thing.
Throughout our history disability has sparked
innovation, that benefits all of us today and many
of the products we use today,
can be traced back to disability.
In 1808, an Italian inventor named Turri built one
of the first working typewriters.
He wanted a solution for producing print
that didn't require vision.
That someone can do by touch.
Now Turri had a lover who was blind, and he wanted for her
to be able to write him love letters.
So he designed the first, one of the first working typewriters
as a possible solution.
And now today, around the world, we have lots of touch typists,
lots of people who use keyboards without using vision,
both sighted typists and blind typists.
More recently, one of the fathers of the internet,
Vinton Cerf, is hard of hearing,
and his wife is also hearing impaired, and they were looking
for a solution that would allow them to communicate
without using hearing.
And to communicate from afar.
Disability drives innovation,
not just by non-disabled inventors but by people
with disabilities as well.
Vinton ended up developing one of the earliest email protocols,
and electronic mail was one way for them
to communicate from afar.
And now, just about everybody uses email,
and sends text messages.
Solutions designed with disability in mind end
up benefiting the entire community.
And central to innovation is exploration.
I'm going to share a photo of a jungle gym.
And a jungle gym highlights exploration.
There are multiple ways to get to the top, there isn't a right
or wrong way to climb, there isn't a right
or wrong path to take.
When I'm climbing I can't see the ropes.
This is about, 20 feet tall,
it's a pyramid shaped rope based jungle gym.
And when I climb, I reach out, explore, until I find the ropes,
until I find the solution.
There are many, many, many different ways to climb,
by touch, by sight, by sound.
You could have someone down on the ground offering
If you have a mobility disability,
you can design an assistive climbing device.
Exploration values alternative techniques
and the more open you are to seeing the world
in multiple perspectives, the more likely you are going
to design, develop the next big thing.
One area where we rarely seek innovation is haptics.
And haptics is the concept
of communication information through touch.
I have an Apple Watch,
and it taps my wrist twice when I get a message.
And that's a form
of communication based on haptics, touch.
I recently went surfing,
and that whole experience was about haptics.
Here's a photo of me on a tandem board
and a tandem board is a large board.
I'm standing near the front
and in the back is the surf instructor,
Matt Allen from Maui Surf Academy.
He was using tactile signals.
I could also feel the power of the waves vibrating
through the surf board.
The wind, the sun, the cold water.
Skin is our largest organ,
yet we've barely explored the potential of haptics.
There's a lot of potential at this intersection
of haptics and technology.
Keep exploring, keep innovating, keep designing apps
that are going to increase access for everyone.
And as you go through this,
engage with the disability community,
plan for accessibility from the start and design knowing
that it's going to benefit you.
Thanks for listening everyone.
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