Since its introduction in 2009, HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) has enabled the delivery of countless live and on‐demand audio and video streams globally. With the introduction of a new Low-Latency mode, latencies of less than two seconds are now achievable over public networks at scale, while still offering backwards compatibility to existing clients. Learn about how to develop and configure your content delivery systems to take advantage of this new technology.
Good afternoon, everyone.
My name is Roger Pantos and our
HLS session this year is all
focused on Low-Latency.
So, first of all, what is this
latency thing we're talking
about when we say low-latency?
Well, in this context, it refers
to the amount of time from when
a camera records a frame of
video or hits your production
And when your user, sees that
frame at home watching on their
iPad or Apple TV.
And shortening that duration,
keeping that small is crucial to
certain types of content.
Now, the one we're probably most
familiar with are live sports.
But it's also important for
late-breaking news, for things
like live streaming of games,
and even for things like the
Really anything where there's a
lot of people watching the same
video at the same time.
And usually, there's a social
component to it.
So, how low does that latency
have to be to provide a good
Well, the gold standard today is
around two to eight seconds.
And that's what's provided by
the current suite of television
broadcasters, cable satellite
And so, when we design
Low-Latency HLS, we set
ourselves a target of one to two
seconds delay from live at scale
over the public internet with
any kind of reasonable round
Now, we did that without
sacrificing anything, any of the
features that make HLS so
So we still adapt the quality to
match the user's network speed.
We still allow you to protect
We still allow you to insert ads
and provide program boundary and
We still enable you to scale
your broadcasts to hundreds of
thousands of users using
commodity CDNs cost effectively.
And we're making sure that these
streams are backward compatible.
So you can still see them at
regular latency on older
So, how do we do all that?
Well, to understand that, first,
we have to go back to regular
HLS and see where we're starting
So, first of all, from its
inception, HLS was designed to
be a simple and robust protocol.
And that has been great.
And in fact, if your content
doesn't fall within the bounds
of those, you know, types of
content we talked about earlier,
you should keep using regular
HLS and it's going to work great
But that simplicity comes at a
When you're watching sports, for
instance, the manifestation of
that cost is often that you hear
about the goal through your
apartment wall before you see it
on your Apple TV.
So why is that?
Well, to understand that, let's
take a look at what has to
happen with regular HLS in order
to get a particular frame from
your production backend to user
We start with the frame.
And the first thing we need to
do is encode it and put it into
Now, we recommend 6-second
But that does mean that because
we're encoding in real time, its
six seconds before you even have
anything that you can put on
After we've got that segment,
the client has to discover that
HLS today uses the polling
mechanism, which means that
every now and then the client
checks in with the server for
latest copy of the playlist to
see if there's anything new.
Now in the best case, the client
might say, check in right after
the server has put the latest
segment into the playlist.
That's great, but often we don't
fall into that best case.
And in fact, in some cases, it
can be almost another six
seconds before the client even
finds out that there's a new
After it does, and gets the new
playlist back, it then has to
turn around and make another
request to actually get the
And remember that each of these
requests takes a round trip time
on the network.
And on some networks,
particularly cellular, this can
be in the hundreds of
It's not insignificant.
So anyway, after it does all
that, then the segment can start
flowing to the client.
Then once it gets enough, it can
present that frame of video.
Now, in this example, we're
already up in the 12-second
But if you're delivering your
content over a CDN, and almost
all of us do, then it can get
even further away from live.
And the reason for that is
because of the way that regular
HLS interacts with CDNs.
And let's take a look at that.
So imagine that you've got your
You're authoring it to your
origin on the right.
In a particular time, it's
placed a playlist up there.
It has three segments in it.
Now, the first client that
checks in wants to find the
latest greatest media.
If the CDN edge server that it's
talking to hasn't cached any of
that stuff yet, he's actually in
good shape because he's going to
ask for a playlist.
The CDN is going to get it from
the origin, get the latest
versions, sent it right to the
Client 1 is in good shape.
The problem comes about a second
or two later when on the origin,
we get a new segment in town and
the playlist is updated with now
containing segments 1 through 4.
What happens after that?
When client 2 comes in and wants
to find out again, "OK, what's
the latest content?"
Well, the playlist he's going to
get back from that edge is the
cached playlist that has only
segments 1 through 3.
He can't even discover segment 4
because the CDN has served him a
cached version of that playlist.
Now, why does the CDN do that?
Why it can just serve at the
most recent version?
Well, the problem is that the
CDN has no way of learning that
that playlist has been updated
on the origin.
And if it were to go in and
check with the origin, every
time, some random client came in
and said, "Hey, what's the
It would melt down the origin.
So CDNs have to cache for a
period of time.
It's called the time to live.
And the longer that time to live
is, the longer client is
We'll see that outdated version
of the playlist and that
stretches our delay from live by
that much more.
So, all these problems can be
But in deciding how we want to
approach that fix, there are a
few more factors that we need to
The first is that HTTP is still
the best way to deliver the same
media to hundreds of thousands
people over the internet at the
So we should stick with HTTP.
But doing that means that we are
stuck with the HTTP delivery
And that is of distributing
discrete segments, discrete
chunks of resources to clients.
And if it's going to take us six
seconds to produce that chunk,
then we've already missed our
If we're going to hit that
deadline of only a second away
from live, then the things we're
distributing over HTTP have to
shrink to become in some cases
The next thing we have to sort
of grapple with is that now and
for the foreseeable future CDNs
are essential to helping us
scale to global sized audiences.
But CDNs, at the end of the day,
are essentially HTTP proxy
caches and they're going to do
what caches do.
And we have to work with that
not against it.
The final thing is that when
we're playing so close to the
live edge, we can only buffer a
tiny little amount ahead because
that's all we've got.
And so, if we have to do
something like switch to a
different bit rate, then we've
only got like we don't have 10
seconds to do that before we
We might only have less than a
And so, we have to make sure
that the mechanics of switching
are as efficient as they can be
because we have this very short
So, we looked at the entire HLS
delivery model, soup to nuts.
And we identified five big
changes that we needed to make
to hit this target of one to two
seconds of delay from live.
The first thing we're going to
talk about is that we need a way
to get that media on to the
server shorter than that six
And we call that reducing
So the way we're going to do it,
is we're going to allow the
server to publish small parts of
the main segment before the main
segment itself is ready.
So we can deliver those smaller
The second thing we're doing is
we're optimizing how clients
discover segments, so that they
can do it more quickly.
And the way we're doing that is
we're changing how the client
updates its playlist.
We're allowing it to ask for a
particular playlist update in
advance before it's actually
ready on the server.
The server will then hold on to
that request keeping an eye on
the playlist until it updates
with that next segment.
At that point, you will
immediately send the playlist
back to the client.
The client will find out about
it in less than round trip time.
And in this model, each
individual playlist update
actually has a different URL.
And this provides a second
advantage, which is that it
makes caching of these playlist
updates much more efficient
because with a different URL for
every update, every update looks
like a separate cache entity.
So what happens now is when
client 1 wants a particular
It'll ask for it.
The CDN says, "I've never heard
I'm going to go right over the
origin, the origin is going to
say, "Well, that's because I
haven't built it yet."
So now, it chugs away.
Once it has it update, it hands
it to the CDN which hands it
right to the client.
Next client comes in, he says,
"I want the same update."
The CDN identifies that
positively using the URL and
says, "Here you go."
Every subsequent client who
asked for that update will get
it served immediately out of the
But the next time, the first
client or any other client wants
the update after that, the URL
that sends the CDN is a
And so, this the CDN immediately
knows he doesn't have it cache.
He doesn't hand out something
Instead, he goes right back to
The origin says, "Well, I
haven't built that yet."
And then, once it is built, it
hands it back to the CDN and is
sent over to client.
So, these new playlist update
requests are inherently cache
And that makes caching work
better overall on the CDN.
Now, the third thing we're doing
is we're eliminating that extra
After you discover a segment to
go off and actually get the
And the way we're doing that is
to use Push.
So, when the client asks for the
next playlist update, it's going
to tell the server.
And by the way, when you get
that playlist update that has
the next segment that I don't
know about then I want you to--
when you return me that
playlist, I want you to Push
that segment to me right away.
And that way, I don't have to
turn around and make a second
The fourth thing we're doing is
we are addressing the cost of
transferring playlists, over and
And the basic approach we're
taking is using Delta updates.
So the way that works is the
first time a client asks for a
particular media playlist, it
gets the whole thing back.
After that though, it has the
vast majority of the playlist.
It's only really interested in
knowing about the part of the
end that's changed.
And so, after that, the next
time and it asked one it says,
"I want a playlist update that's
a Delta update."
And the thing that comes back is
a much smaller chunk of data
that only contains the stuff
that has changed most recently
at the live digital playlist.
And these updates will often fit
into a single packet, a single
empty unit of data.
So they're much, much more
efficient for every subsequent
Now, the fifth change is that
since we now know that these
playlist updates are pretty up
to date, we can have them carry
some information with them that
helps us switch to other bit
rate tiers faster.
So in other words, imagine we
have to bit rates on our CDN
here, and the clients playing
the first one.
When it asks for an update and
it receives that most recent
version of the one megabit
playlist, it can carry other
information such that if it
decides it needs to switch the
two megabit one, it can go
directly to the most recent
version of the two megabit
And this may make switching bit
rates more efficient.
So five changes, we're reducing
the publishing latency, putting
our media on the CDN, optimizing
segment discovery, we're
eliminating round trips, we're
reducing the overhead of
transferring playlist, and we're
making it possible switch to
Now, let's take a look into the
details of all of those.
So, to make all of the stuff
work, the client needs a way to
tell the server that it wants to
make use of these new features
like playlists Delta updates or
blocking playlist reload.
And the way it does that is
using something we call the HLS
The way that works is that the
services themselves are
advertised by the server using a
new tag, the server control tag.
When the client discovers that
they're available, it makes use
of them by sending the server a
small number of directives that
are carried as query parameters
in the get request for the
So it looks something like this.
Now, this is the first time that
we've specified query parameters
as part of the HLS.
And so, we are going forward
reserving all query parameters
that start with underscore HLS
on playlist URLs for the use of
Another thing we're doing is
we're making sure that for all
the clients that those query
parameters appear in a
deterministic order in the URL
so that the CDNs don't end up
caching multiple copies of what
are effectively the same
So, now let's go through each of
those five changes a little bit
The first is to address this
notion-- is to address the
reduction of publishing latency.
And so, we're introducing a
notion of a partial segment to
And we call these things Parts
So, a partial segment is
essentially just a subset of the
regular segment containing a
subset of the media within that
And CMAF already has a name for
this kind of thing.
They call them a CMAF chunk for
And so, you can use CMAF chunks
as your partial segments in HLS.
You can also use little bits of
transport stream or any other of
the defined HLS segment formats
for your partial segments.
The main thing about them is
that they're short.
They can be less than a full GOP
So that means you can have half
second partial segments and
still keep your two-second GOPs.
Every time you create a new
partial segment, it is added to
And that means that if you've
got half second partial segments
for example, then you can
publish content to your CDN
about half a second after it
hits your production backend.
That's how far it reduces your
Partial segments are added to
the playlist in parallel to the
regular segments stream but they
don't stay there for very long.
And that's because partial
segments are primarily useful
when you're playing at the live
They allow clients to discover
media just as soon as it
And they fine-grained
addressability of those partial
segments allows clients who are
joining those streams to join
them closer to live and perhaps
the largest segment boundary.
But after the partial segments
drift further away from the live
edge and their parent segments
are well established in the
playlist, the clients are
actually better off loading the
parent segments than the partial
And so the partial segments are
removed from the playlist.
And this helps keep our playlist
So, the way it works is, as you
produce your segment, you're
producing partial segments in
After a while, as those partial
segments become further or far
enough away from the live edge,
they are removed and they're
replaced by new partial segments
at the live edge.
Let's take a look at how that
looks in an actual HLS playlist.
So, I got a couple things up
The first thing I want you to
notice is that just like regular
playlists have a target duration
which says this is how long our
segment can be.
Parts have the same kind of
thing it's called a part target
And so this is saying to you
that the Parts in this playlist,
the partial segments have a
maximum duration of five, of
The next thing though is we have
a regular segment here.
It's a 6-second segment43.
Half a second after we put
segment43 into the playlist, we
can put-- we can add the first
part of segment44.
And we do this using a new tag
called the part tag.
And so, what you can see is that
each part tag has URI.
So the segment get-- the Partial
Segment has its own URI
segment44.1 is half a second
And it's independent, which
means it has own URI.
Half a second after that, we can
add the next partial segment of
segment44 to the playlist and so
on and so forth.
This is a 6-second playlist.
So there's going to be 12 parts.
Once we get to the final part of
segment44, we actually have the
entire parents segment as well.
And so, we can publish the final
part of segment44 and the
parents segment at the same
And so, then half a second after
that sort of the cycle repeats
and we get segment45.
And then, after a while, those
partial segments in the middle
are far enough away from the
leading edge of the playlist
that they can be removed.
And now, we just have segment43,
segment44 and then the parts of
segment45 and beyond.
So that's how we use partial
segments to lower your
Now, let's look at optimizing
how we discover segments.
And we do that using what we
call blocking playlist reload.
The way this works is the server
advertises it has the ability to
handle blocking playlist reload
by putting a can block reload
attribute into the server
When the client sees this, it
knows that it can ask for its
next playlist update in advance
of when it's actually ready.
So we advertise the request cost
At that point, the server
receives a request, realizes
that it doesn't have a playlist
update that's been requested yet
and so it holds on to it until
So, how does the client specify
to the server which updated
wants, that it wants a
particular playlist update with
a particular segment in it.
Well, it uses a feature of HLS
called the media sequence
Now, every segment in an HLS
playlist has a unique sequence
The sequence number of the first
segment of the playlist is the
value of that media sequence
You see at the top there.
So it's 1800 in this case.
The media sequence number of the
next segment is just that plus
And that's true even if the next
segment is separated from the
others by a discontinuity tag or
a key rotation or anything else.
Sequence numbers just keep
And that means that if we have
Then, we know the next time it's
updated, what the sequence
number of that next segments
going to be.
So, to get the next update that
contains the segment, you know,
the next segment of interest, we
can tell the server, "Hey,
please, go get me a playlist
update and I want the one that
contains media sequence number
So this is how that looks.
So we've got a get request here
for a playlist.
You can see it's requesting live
And we have a query parameter
underscore HLS underscore
That's how the client tells the
server, I want this particular
playlist update, the one that
contains this media sequence
After it receives it, as soon as
it receives it, it'll
immediately send the next update
request for 1804.
And those to a CDN look like
completely different URLs even
though only one query parameter
is different by one value to a
CDN, it's a completely different
And so, that gives us our cache
Now, this works with partial
segments as well.
And this is how it looks in this
So we have a second example and
the second example says that, "I
want the playlist update that
contains the first part of the
media sequence number 1803.
Now, there's one more thing
going on here and that's this
Push query parameter.
What's that about?
Well, remember that another
thing we want to do is eliminate
these extra round trip times for
And so to do that, we're making
use of Push.
And to do that, we're using
Now, some of you may not be
intimately familiar with HTTP/2.
So let me give you a quick
HTTP/2 is a successor to our old
And it was standardized by the
IATF about four years ago.
Since then, it has been widely
adopted by web servers, clients
It is required for Low-Latency
HLS because it gives us several
features that allow us to crank
up the efficiency of the
The most notable is Push.
So how does Push work?
Well, HTTP/2 works the same way
as HTTP/1 in the sense that the
client when it wants a resource
will send a get request to the
What's new with HTTP/2 is that
when the server sees that
request, it can say to itself,
"Oh, I see you want this
I bet you want this other
resource as well."
And so, when it sends you the
resource you've asked for, at
the same time it can
unilaterally start sending you
that secondary resource that you
don't know you want yet.
In that way, if it guesses right
then you don't have to turn
around and make a second request
for it because it's already on
its way to you.
So, we're making use of this in
the latency HLS with Segment
So when a client asks for a
particular playlist update, the
one that contains the next
segment x, it can tell the
server, "Oh, and by the way,
when you give me that playlist
update, start pushing me segment
x as well."
And so that allows us to
eliminate that extra round trip
of asking for the segment.
So let's take a look at all
three of these first
optimizations and see how they
influence the flow in comparison
to regular HLS.
So, let's put that over there.
And let's take a look at what
the new flow looks like with a
low-latency client talking to a
First of all, the client will
make a playlist request in
So we'll have it lined up there.
Server holds on to it.
The server in the meantime is
producing that first partial
And let's say in this example
that the partial segment is one
So after a second of doing its
encoding thing, at that point,
it can add that partial segment
to the playlist and unblock that
playlist request, at the same
time, pushing that first partial
second to the client.
The client can then display that
as soon as it gets enough of it.
And at the same time, line up
the next playlist request on the
server so it can find out about
the next segment that appears as
quickly as possible.
Even with partial segments as
long as the second, you can see
how this dramatically reduces
the amount of time it takes for
a given frame of media to travel
from the server all the way to
Now, the last couple of changes
are essentially optimizations to
this basic flow.
The first one is about reducing
this overhead of transferring
the playlist over and over
Now, why is that important?
Well, if this playlist you're
transferring has like three
hours or even five hours of
worth of segments in it and
you're transferring it like
three to four times a second
that can become significant,
even with gzip.
And so instead, we're adding
Delta playlist updates.
And so, the way that works is
that, again, the server
announces the client that it can
has the ability to provide Delta
And it does that with a
CAN-SKIP-UNTIL attribute that
tells the client if you ask for
a Delta update, it's going to
skip all the segments until a
certain number of seconds away
from the live edge.
If the client sees that and it
knows the last time it updated
the playlist and so it figures,
it can make do with a Delta
update and not miss any
Then it can make an explicit
request the next time it updates
a playlist for a Delta update.
And that update carries just the
last few segments in the
playlist, the ones that are
closest to the live edge.
And it skips the earlier part of
the playlist that the client
So here's an example.
In this case, you can see that
the client is asking for a Delta
update by specifying the
underscore HLS underscore
skip=YES query parameter, when
it makes its play playlist get
In the playlist that comes back,
you'll see that there's a
CAN-SKIP-UNTIL, which tells the
client that when it asks for a
Delta update that the Delta
update will skip everything
until the last 36 seconds before
the live edge.
And then the last new tag here
is this skip tag.
And the way you can think of the
skip tag is it is a stand in for
1700 xm segment, xm segment tags
that would have been there in a
full playlist update.
So that's Delta updates and
allows us to really minimize the
number or the amount of network
traffic it takes to constantly
refresh the playlist without
losing any of the generality and
power that HLS Playlist give
So now, let's look at the last
change and this is the one that
helps us switch bit rate tiers
They're called Rendition
And the idea is that, when your
client loads the most up to date
version of a particular playlist
for a particular bit rate that
update can carry an up to date
kind of a peek into other
renditions that the client might
decide or interesting to switch
to in the next second or two.
Specifically, the Rendition
Reports carry the last media
sequence number in that pure
playlist in its last partial
And that gives the client what
it needs to compose the URL to
get that latest playlist.
So it looks like this.
In this example, we have the
client asking for an update of
the one-megabit playlist.
And when it's doing that, it's
using the HLS report query
parameter to ask for a peek into
the two-megabit playlist that's
on the same server.
When it gets its playlist back,
the playlist will contain a
rendition report tag.
And that has a variety of
information about that other
So, if we put all these changes
together, the question is, how
well do they work.
Do you guys want to see a demo?
Let's do it.
You know, when we were putting
the session together, we were
like, "Yeah, we could do a live
demo or we could do a Live
Stream from Cupertino."
But wouldn't it be more
demonstrative to do a live demo
from somewhere a little bit
Maybe somewhere 7,000 miles
away, 12,000 kilometers
somewhere like Sydney,
[ Applause and Cheering ]
But wait, do we know anyone in
Matt. We know Matt.
Let's call Matt.
OK. Let's see.
Geez, I hope Matt is awake.
Good day, Roger.
How are you?
I'm well, thank you.
Great. Hey, say, I am here at
WWDC and I want to show these
folks Low-Latency HLS.
Do you still have that Stream
I sure do.
OK. Let's tune in.
See what we got here.
I'm got my Apple TV.
OK. There we go.
OK. Hey, fantastic I'm at Apple
So let's bring up our app.
We got our Sydney Stream here.
And let's tune in and see what
Sydney is not happening.
Let's see if we try that again.
OK. Let me try the Cupertino
Stream just to see if there's
someone-- oh, there's Simon.
Simon is in Cupertino.
So that's-- [laughter] we got
Let's try this one more time.
Are we-- Oops, come on, how do I
manage this thing?
Matt, you're still there right--
Whoa, there you are.
Yeah. I'm still here.
But, hey, you know, what is that
the Sydney GPO behind you?
It sure is.
Oh man, come on.
We're not sorry-- I got to try
My Stream is not behaving the
way I want my Stream to be
Yeah. Simon is still there.
Oh man. And there's-- OK,
there's-- Yeah, there is Matt.
And am I hitting play, pause?
Well, you know what, maybe we're
going to have to end up calling
Simon instead, which is kind of
a bummer because I really wanted
to show you guys the Stream.
Hold our breath.
Are we good?
Did you guys have to restart
The network went away for a
The network went away.
We're having-- Let me just see
if maybe we're not plugged in
These live demos just killing
Double tap this and this is
going to try to get rid of this
Yeah, I don't know if this going
to help me but let's give a
Oh, man. All right.
I think we're going to try this
one more time and then we are
going to back up.
We're having trouble with the
Stream over here.
So let me-- Thanks for showing
up and we're able to see you for
a little bit but I'm going to
have to go to Cupertino.
Well, that's really a bummer but
let's call Simon anyway.
This is why you have backups, I
Hey, Simon, are you there?
Yeah, I'm here Roger.
How are you?
Good. Simon is also
I realized that's not-- that's
kind of cool comfort but there
You got Australians
So Simon, I wanted to show
the folks here a Low-Latency HLS
Oh you bet.
So why don't we do this.
I'll have you raise your hand
and people hear you said-- if
you said when you do it, they'll
hear you over the audio.
And then they'll see you on the
Now, they'll give you-- a give
them a sense of what the video
So, I want you to raise your
OK. You bet.
OK. Raise your hand.
I'm raising my hand.
Keep that hand up.
And-- oh you put it down.
OK. Now, give me three fingers.
There we are.
So that's a-- they are about,
you know, [applause] HLS Stream
less than two seconds latency.
Thank you very much for helping
us out today, Simon.
I hope you all enjoy the rest of
Alright. So that is Low-Latency
So at this point, some of you
are probably wondering, how can
I give me some of that HLS
And so, first of all, a lot of
your application developers and
so let's talk about that first.
The good news is by default, you
don't have to do anything if
you're using an AV Player to
play your Streams and you stand
up Low-Latency Stream, you'll
get it by default.
We do have a couple of new API's
One that tells you how far
you're currently set from the
live edge and the other which is
a recommendation based on things
like round trip time we're
And so, you can use those
together to configure.
For instance, you see here a
little bit too close in your
risk of stalling, you can back
it off a little bit.
Maybe we should have done that
The second is a way to allow you
to maintain the play head
position relative to the live
And the reason this is
interesting is because that
today if you're playing the Live
Stream and you go through a
tunnel or whatever and you
buffer for 10 seconds, when you
resume, you resume at the point
you stopped, which means you
don't miss anything.
But every time you're buffering
a little bit further behind, and
so if you set automatically
preserves time offset from live
to yes, then every time after we
will buffer we will not
automatically jump ahead to that
same place from live.
And so, that keeps you at live.
The next thing to think about is
configuring your CDN.
We really wanted to avoid
placing exotic video specific
requirements on our CDNs because
we want them to be able to focus
on being great CDNs.
And so we kept things
You need to use industry
standard HTTP/2 to deliver your
HLS segments and playlists.
That includes supporting Push
and the standard priority
You should be putting a complete
ladder of tiers on each server.
You can still have multiple
redundant servers, but each one
should have a complete ladder so
we can minimize connection setup
And you have to set up your CDN
so the aggregates duplicate
If Fred asked for a particular
playlist and it goes off to the
origin to get it, and then Bob
asks for the same thing, rather
than sending the same request
through the CDN, you should park
it next to Fred's and wait for
that first response to come back
and then deliver them together.
Different CDNs call that
different things, Apache Traffic
Server calls it Reader while
Others might call it early
published or something like
The main thing is to find that
and set it up.
Now, the main work here is
implementing your origin,
changing your packagers who
admit partial segments and
implementing the origin API.
To help you with that, we've
published a spec for Low-Latency
It's available on the website.
There's a link to it through the
session page on the app.
It's currently structured as the
We plan to roll the rules into
the course back later this year.
It includes something new, which
is a Server Configuration
And that has a set of attributes
of the server delivery chain
that required to engage
Low-Latency mode in the client.
The client will check these if
it doesn't see all the met,
it'll fall back to regular
Also, we're giving you a
reference implementation for
producing and Streaming
Low-Latency HLS Streams.
It's called a Low-Latency HLS
Beta Tools package.
And it has tools that will
generate a playlist either a
programmatic bit bop or from the
camera and package it into a
It includes a front end to
Apache that implements the
origin API, including Blocking
Playlist Reload, Delta Updates,
And you can use that either to
experiment with Low-Latency with
your app and also to compare it
against your backend
implementation when you build
So that's what you need as
developers to get up and running
on this thing.
Let's talk about the roadmap to
We recognize that Low-Latency
HLS is a major change.
And so, we are allowing you to
spend a bit of time getting to
know it and to we-- and to stand
up your implementations against
our clients at scale.
So the short answer for what
that means is you need an app
entitlement for Low-Latency
This allows you to build your
app, test your Streams and even
deploy them and up to 10,000
beta users via TestFlight.
And then once you're confident
that things are working and the
beta period ends, you'll be able
to submit your apps to the
So, in summary, go take a look
at the spec. Try it out in the
beta and start building your
back ends to support Low-Latency
To help you with that, today or
this week rather, we have a
couple of HLS labs.
I'll be there along with a
number of other folks on my team
and we're happy to answer all
your questions about Low-Latency
HLS and any other HLS questions.
The first one is on Thursday
from 4 to 6.
The second is on Friday from 11
to 1, I think.
And so with that, thank you very
much for attending.
And I hope everyone has a great
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