OLIVIER BONNET: Good afternoon and welcome
to Session 704 What's New in CloudKit.
My name is Olivier.
I'm the Engineering Manager for the iCloud Client teams.
So a year ago we introduced CloudKits a brand new framework
for you as developers to harness of the power of iCloud.
We built a number of the iOS 8 new features
on top of CloudKits.
Most visibly iCloud Drive and iCloud Photo Library were built
from the ground up on top of CloudKit but Mail Drop, HomeKit,
Safari history syncing, and call history syncing were also
So a year later, what have we seen?
We have uploaded over 240 billion records.
We saved over 250 petabytes of assets and that's coming
from over 300 million users.
So really, we couldn't be happier
with how this has turned out, with how reliable
and stable CloudKit has been for us.
So this year, we're going to add a couple more features to that.
Notes is now using CloudKit on iOS,
and OS X to synchronize your notes between your devices.
The new app we introduces yesterday,
News is entirely built on the CloudKit public database.
Even the WWDC app is now using CloudKit this year.
And last but not least iCloud Backup,
was ported in iOS 9 to use CloudKit.
So this is actually -- this one is actually a bigger deal
than it seems because iCloud Backup is our biggest service
in terms of number of users, amount of data, and the number
of requests per seconds.
We've also heard some good feedback from you as developers.
For instance, from Hipstamatic, "With CloudKit, we were able
to focus on building our app,
and even squeeze in a few extras."
So that is exactly why we built CloudKit.
To enable you as developers to focus on building great apps,
building awesome user experience, without having
to set up a server, without having to operate it,
without having to be on call 24/7.
AgileBits is using CloudKit to synchronize one password data.
They're happy with it.
Here's what they're saying: "CloudKit is very fast,
efficient, and makes it easy to detect and troubleshoot errors."
Again, that was one of our design goals with CloudKit.
If there's an error in the daemon, on the network,
or on the server side, we will return that error to your app
and your app is in charge of handling it,
retrying it, if it makes sense.
Last but not least, IconFactory: "One of the best parts
about CloudKit is there's no complicated sign-in process
Again that was one of out goals.
Make it possible to enable completely seamless user
experience, no account creation,
no password to enter or remember.
In addition to this good feedback,
we also heard some questions from you as developers.
So last year, we introduced CloudKit.
We said it was free with limits.
And so we get some questions like, okay, what does it mean?
What if my app reached the limits?
How much will I have to pay Apple?
Second question we got immediately last year is like,
okay, but what about the web?
What if I have a web app and I wanted to be able
to access the same data as my iOS and OS X CloudKit app.
To talk about both of those,
I would like to hand it over to Eric.
Eric is the manager for the iCloud Server team.
ERIC KRUGLER: Thank you.
Well, thank you, Olivier.
It's terrific to be here this afternoon to talk to you
about what's new in CloudKit.
Let's start by answering that first question.
What does it cost?
We are going to look at CloudKit usage and pricing but to get
into that, we first need
to understand the CloudKit architecture.
So when you use CloudKit, all of your data is stored
in your CloudKit container.
This is the place where all of your data resides
and you can store that data, in two different ways.
One is as a private database and two is as a public database.
Now a private database is the user's private data.
This example would be the iCloud Photo Library.
All the photos that you take are stored in CloudKit
and accessible by the user and managed by the user,
and because it's the user's private data it comes
out of the user's storage quota, not the developer's.
Now when we look at the public database,
this is application's public data.
A great example of this is the new News app
that we just announced yesterday,
where all of those news articles are actually distributed
to all the news applications via CloudKit public database
and because it's the application's public data this
comes out of the developer's storage quota.
So when we talk about pricing and we talk about usage,
we are really talking about public database usage.
So let's see what that means.
For our public database offering,
we have a free offering.
We also have a fee structure if you exceed those free limits.
And we also have usage data.
Let's look at the free offering.
So you have to store assets in the cloud, and we track that
and we give you ten gigabytes to start.
So if you have no users, you are just starting development,
Now as your user population grows,
as your application becomes more popular, we are going to grow
with you and we are going to add an additional 250 megs
for every single user that is using your application for free
and we will grow that up
to an astonishing 1 petabyte of storage.
Likewise, for the database side,
where you store your record data, we will start you
with 100 megs and we will grow that at 2.5 megs per user
and we will go up to 10 terabytes for free.
Now in addition to storage, we also have data transfer.
So as you're uploading
and downloading your assets you are consuming bandwidth
and we will start you with 2 gigabytes
of data transfer per month in and out.
And like the others we will grow that as you have more users.
So we will add an extra 50 megs per user per month.
And we will allow you to grow up to 200 terabytes
of data transfer per month all for free.
Now for database, it's a little different.
We actually measure it on a request per second basis.
So we are going to start you
at 40 requests per second, which is very large.
And just like the others, we will grow
with the number of users.
And we will do that in increments
of 10 requests per second for each 100,000 users
up to 400 requests per second for free, and what's important
to note about the request per second is
that it's actually a throttle limit.
So if for some reason your application hits these limits,
we will actually send you back a throttling error back
to your client to tell you you've hit the limits.
And then we will talk in a bit about how
to make sure that doesn't happen.
Now, if you do go over those limits,
there is a way to pay for more.
And that's our public database fees.
Now, this is over and above what we give you for free.
So it's the incremental delta between what you get for free,
and what you are using.
So for assets, it's $0.03 per gigabyte per month,
for database, $3.00 per gig per month.
On the transfer side,
for transferring assets $0.10 per gig
and on the database request rates,
we'll add an extra 10 requests per second for $100,
and so you can increment that number up to get to the level
that allows your application to work smoothly
if you hit the free limits.
And, of course, push is free.
Okay? So now let's take a look at a demo
of the CloudKit calculator.
This is on developer.apple.com/cloudkit.
You can play around with this if you haven't already.
I'm going to invite Ramiro Calvo to help drive,
because apparently I can drive and talk at the same time.
And he's going to help us walk through this.
If you go to the calculator, you notice that right now,
we have zero active users.
Okay? And the numbers that you see beneath it tell you how much
storage we are getting to you for free.
For start, this matches what we just talked about.
There's 10 gigs of asset storage,
100 megs of database storage, 2 gigs of data transfer per month,
and 40 requests per second.
Now let's say my application starts taking off
and I have 100,000 users.
So we're going to grow that to 100,000,
and you will notice we gave you a lot more storage,
and if you look below at the bottom there,
and Ramiro maybe you can scroll up a little bit, you're going
to notice that the cost is actually $0.
Ramiro is it possible to scroll it up a little bit.
Okay? So we have $0 cost.
Now let's say we go up to half a million users.
Okay? Now, once again we have a lot of storage.
Now we are up to 125 terabytes.
We're still growing and the cost to you is still zero.
Let's take it to a million users.
Okay? So now we got a lot of users in here.
We got a lot of storage.
We are up to 250 terabytes of data.
Lots of requests per second.
It's still free.
Let's take it to 4 million users.
Okay. So now we are at 4 million users and you are going
to see some very large numbers here.
We are up to the petabyte of storage, 10 terabytes
of database storage, 200 terabytes per month
of data transfer, this is a lot of data,
and all of this still costs you nothing.
Now if you recall from the pricing slide,
at some point, we hit a limit.
And that limit looks about right here.
You got about a petabyte of storage.
That's what we said was the max you can get to.
So, as we add more users then there must be some costs.
Let's take it to 5 million users.
And the cost here is -- well, it's still free.
So what's going on here?
Well, if your application on average uses less per user
that we give you, it still costs you nothing.
And because it's an average,
that means that some users may use more than the average,
and some may use less and that's perfectly fine.
It still costs you nothing.
So we could take this all the way up to 10 million here,
and demonstrate that it still costs you nothing, all right?
If you just architect your application correctly to stay
within the free limits that we give you.
So that's how we calculate things, use the calculator
if you would like more information.
The next question is how do I know how much I'm using?
The CloudKit Dashboard is the place
where we put this information.
The Dashboard is a web application that you get
to at developer.apple.com.
It's a place that you get to look at your container
and you get to do things like manage your record types,
manage whether they are in development or production,
and we have added some new functionality.
So if you take a look at what we've added,
there's a new section called Usage.
And you can go there and take a look
at how your application container is performing.
If we drill in, we have a couple
of different ways to look at the data.
We can look at it at a daily level or a monthly level.
And if you look at the daily information, the very top thing
on the graphs is the number of users
and this is really important
because we calculate how much free stuff we give you,
based on the numbers you have.
So you want to look at that first.
Now, you'll also notice on the right,
you have some dashed lines over this
because what we are giving you is two months worth of data,
the prior month and the current month.
The current month, depending on where you are at,
some of that is going to be a forecast.
And we're going to forecast that for you based
on the prior activity of your container.
Now, below this, is another graph,
which shows our requests per second and day by day,
we show you what the peak request per second we're seeing
on any given day is.
Now you can also select monthly and if you choose monthly,
you're going to get a 12-month view month by month
of the activity of your application,
and the current month is typically going to be
in a forecast where it shows a dashed line
and basically what we expect it's going to be
for the current month.
Now, let's scroll down to look at a couple of other graphs.
Here's database storage, as well as asset storage.
And you'll notice something different here.
You will see two lines.
There's a red line on top and a yellow line just below.
The red line represents the amount of free storage
that we are giving you.
And the yellow line represents how much you are actually using.
So the game all of you guys get to play is how
to keep the yellow line beneath the red line, right?
The way that you can actually see this information is
by clicking over here on the section on the right
where the quota box is.
It's off by default.
You can just turn it on if you like.
The reason it is off by default is because we give you
so much free storage, if you click that, the scale changes
and basically your usage looks like a flat line relative
to the amount of free storage that we give you.
So please go ahead and try that out.
So the CloudKit Dashboard provides two things.
It's a new section to keep track of usage data
and also give you the free limits.
And it's available now in beta release at developer.apple.com.
So if you already have a container,
you can go there today and you can see the usage data
on the Dashboard.
The second question that was asked is what about web?
Well, I'm pleased to introduce you
to the new CloudKit Web Services.
This is the way --
Yeah, all right!
This is the way that you can take your amazing iOS
and OS X applications and you can extend them to the web.
So how does this work?
Well, first lets talk about the features.
You get a full CloudKit API via JSON and HTTPS,
we also provide CloudKit JS Library
which is absolutely the best way
to quickly create web applications,
and we provide Web Sign in with Apple ID is the way
that your users will authenticate
when they use your web app.
Now, how does this work?
If you look today, you'll see your application running
on iOS and OS X.
It interacts with CloudKit the framework,
which behind the scenes talks to our CloudKit servers.
What we have introduced today is the ability for you
to create your own web application,
running in a web browser and talking over JSON and HTTPS,
to our CloudKit Web Services which lets you then talk
to the same exact CloudKit servers
that your native applications are talking to on iOS and OS X.
Now, it's important to understand about the JSON
and the HTTPS piece of this, it's just a specification.
There's no code.
Effectively, it's up to you as a developer to look
at that specification.
You get to construct your own end points, hitting endpoints.
You get to create your URLs and construct your JSONs that goes
in the bodies that go up in a request, you get back JSON
in responses, you parse that, you deal with asset uploads
and downloads, retry logic and on and on.
But a much better way to do this is using the CloudKit
that shields you from all the complexities of the HTTPS
and JSON protocol that sits behind it.
And you can use either one, but you are probably crazy
if you go the other route.
So please use CloudKit JS.
So what does this give you?
Well all right, it gives you full public
and private database access.
It gives you all those record applications.
It lets you upload and download assets.
It lets you execute queries.
It even lets you do subscriptions and notifications,
which means that I can actually get an asynchronous event
into my web application, just like you get pushes
to tell you something has changed or to notify you
of some other event, so you don't have
to have users hitting the refresh button or pulling
from your web application.
It also has user discoverability,
and it has the ability to answer the question what's changed
since within custom zones which gives you sync semantics.
In short, what this gives you is full compatibility
and capability as what you get
on the native CloudKit on iOS and OS X.
Now, CloudKit JS, as I mentioned before is the absolute best way
to develop web applications.
It matches the native CloudKit API as much
but you know we did our best, it's pretty close.
There's no intermediate servers.
and you can talk directly to the CloudKit, you know --
the CloudKit Web Service behind the scenes and you don't have
to run your own servers or anything in the middle
and it's how we built the new Notes web app
that you saw demonstrated the other day.
And what I would like to do is have Ramiro Calvo join me again.
We're going to give you a demo
of the new Notes web app based on CloudKit JS.
So we are going to start at icloud.com.
This is our spring board.
There's a bunch of web apps sitting here already.
You'll notice some familiar ones we have Photos and iCloud Drive.
Those are two applications
that already exist on top of CloudKit.
And with iOS 9, the new Notes application is also built
And so we've created a new web application that sits on top
of CloudKit, and gives all of those --
that rich capability that you saw demonstrated at the keynote.
So Ramiro will click in.
Here's the web app.
You're going to see some great content in here.
You see images.
You can do videos.
There's check boxes.
All of these things are available in the new Notes app
and they are just CloudKit assets and records.
Okay? So what we are going to do now is create a brand new node.
And since we are at the developers conference,
we should probably have a what to do
at the developers conference while we are here.
So let's start out with maybe one
of the more important things, which is we need
to make sure we attend all the after parties.
Let's get that one on the list.
Now after we get done with attending the after parties,
we really need to go to developer.apple.com/cloudkit
and take a look at all the amazing documentation,
including this amazing presentation,
where you are going to be able to find information,
documentation and everything about CloudKit itself as well
as the new CloudKit Web Services.
Once we get through that, we should really go off
and create our first CloudKit web application.
And once we create that, well, we should basically move on
and do our best to try to hit those free limits
and that might actually take a while.
So I don't think we will check that one off.
But I have attended at least one party.
So I think we can check that first one off, Ramiro.
And complete this web experience.
Now, let's go over to iOS, which is an iPad,
running the new Notes application.
We will open this up.
And you will see that same kitchen remodel project
as we saw before.
And here's our new things to do at WWDC that we just typed.
It showed up automatically.
It's the same data, right?
It's just that we have a web interface to it,
where you can have your native iOS interface to it.
Now, we will make a few more changes in here.
I have already gone to developer.apple.com.
Ramiro you have clearly developed an amazing CloudKit
web app with the Notes app and why don't we now go back
and take a look at the web
and see what happens, you know, over there.
Now, if all things happen,
you will notice everything got checked.
That was, again,
that notification experience I talked about.
The notification, push notification happened.
The web application picked that up,
and automatically updated itself and showed you the changes.
And that's the new Notes web app that's available
on iOS 9 and icloud.com.
ERIC KRUGLER: Now, if your users are going
to use the application, they have to sign in.
And so we are going to jump right in to taking a look
at what that might look like in your web application.
So, first, you need some sort of a button
to ask the user to sign in.
This is your UI.
Now when the user clicks this, a new browser window is going
to pop up and this browser window is owned
and managed by Apple.
And this is because the ID and password is only exchanged
between the user and Apple.
The developer never sees this.
And there's a few other things that show up further
down on the login page.
So first, there's "Keep me signed in."
So the user can opt in to say I want to stay signed
in for up to two weeks.
There's a "Forgot Apple ID or password?"
So if the user has forgotten their ID,
we'll manage the whole flow of helping them
to remember their password or reset it.
And finally, if the user is brand new to, you know,
the Apple ecosystem, they don't have an Apple ID at all,
they can create an Apple ID right here in the flow
and they will get an Apple account
that they can then use immediately
with your application.
So the CloudKit Web Service offering includes iCloud
web-only accounts what I just described, which offers 1 gig
of free storage for private database usage.
And if that same user then goes to iOS or OS X and sets
up their account there, it automatically upgrades
to the 5 gig iCloud account immediately.
Public database usage is the same for iOS, OS X and web.
There's no difference, so a request made
on the web is the same as a request made
on your phone or on your Mac.
Storage is the same way.
So when you go to the storage areas or the usage information
on the Dashboard, there's no distinction.
It's all put together.
We do require a comparable application for iOS or OS X.
The purpose of the Web Services is to take your amazing iOS
and OS X applications and extend them to the web.
And it's available now in beta
for development, releasing with iOS 9.
And that's it for CloudKit Web Services.
What I would like to do is ask Olivier to come back
and close out the session.
Thank you very much.
OLIVIER BONNET: Thank you very much, Eric.
So that's it.
We are very excited to see what kind of application,
what kind of amazing ideas you guys will build
on top of CloudKits.
As Eric mentioned, we have new web page developer
It aggregates all the data we have and all the documentation,
the reference library, the simple code we have on CloudKit,
both the new server, web APIs, and the client framework.
In addition to the usual technical support,
and forums, URLs.
If all of those fail, you can email firstname.lastname@example.org
for general inquiries.
We have two more sessions this week.
The first one is tomorrow and we will do a deep dive
on the CloudKit JS and the Web Services API.
And then we have on Thursday at 4:30, we have CloudKit Tips
and Tricks session, where we'll do a best practices,
do's and don'ts and as well a couple
of nice improvements we made to the client's framework
in iOS 9, and OS X El Capitan.
We have a number of labs during the rest of the week.
On Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday at 9:00,
we'll have client engineers.
We will have server engineers.
I promise some of them will even be awake at 9:00.
Please come and with your questions, with your ideas.
We're happy to talk about data mall, about what type
of apps you guys have in mind,
either using public or private databases.
Thank you very much.
Thank you for your attention.
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