ARKit 2 makes it easy to develop vivid augmented reality experiences and enable apps to interact with the real world in entirely new ways. Discover how multiple iOS devices can simultaneously view an AR scene or play multiplayer AR games. Learn about new capabilities for tracking 2D images, and see how to detect known 3D objects like sculptures, toys, and furniture.
Welcome to our session on What's New in ARKit 2. My name is Arsalan, and I am an engineer from ARKit team. Last year, we were really excited to give ARKit in your hands as part of iOS 11 update. ARKit has been deployed to hundreds of millions of devices, making iOS the biggest and most advanced AR platform.
ARKit gives you simple to use interface for powerful set of features.
We have been truly amazed by what you have created with ARKit so far. So let's see some examples from App Store.
Civilisations is an AR app that brings historical artifacts in front of you. You can view them from every angle. You can also enable x-ray modes to have mode interaction.
You can bring them in your backyard, and you can even bring them to life exactly they look like hundreds of years ago.
So this is a great tool to browse historical artifacts.
Boulevard AR is an all right app that lets you browse the work of arts in a way that's never been possible before. You can put them on ground or wall, and you can really go close to them, and you can see all the details. It's just a great way to tell you story of arts.
ARKit is a fun way to educate everyone. Free reverse is an app that places immersive landscape in front of you. You can follow a flow of a river going through landscape and see communities and wild life. You can see how human activity impacts those communities and wildlife by constructions.
So it's a great way to educate everyone about keeping the environment green and through sustainable development. So those were some of the examples. Do check a lot more examples from App Store. So some of you are new to ARKit, so let me give you a quick overview of what ARKit is.
Tracking is the core component of ARKit. It gives you position and orientation of your device in physical world. It can also track objects such as human faces. Scene understanding enhances tracking by learning more attributes about the environment. So we can detect horizontal planes such as ground planes or tabletops. We can also detect vertical planes. So this lets you place your virtual objects in the scene.
Scene understanding also learns about lighting conditions in the environment. So you can use lighting to accurately reflect the real environment in your virtual scene. So your objects don't look too bright or too dark.
Rendering is what actually a user sees on the device and interacts with the augmented reality scene. So ARKit makes it very easy for you to integrate any rendering engine of your choice.
ARKit offers built-in views for SceneKit and SpriteKit. In Xcode, we also have a Metal template for you to quickly get started with your own augmented reality experience. Note also that Unity and Unreal have integrated full feature set of ARKit into their popular gaming engines. So you have all these rendering technologies available to you to get started with ARKit.
So let's see, what is new this year in ARKit 2.
Okay. So we have saving and loading maps that enables powerful new features of persistence and multiuser experiences. We are also giving you environment texturing so you can realistically render your augmented reality scene. ARKit can now track 2D images in real-time.
We are not limited to 2D. We can also detect 3D objects in a scene. And last, we have some fun enhancements for face tracking.
So let's start with saving and loading maps.
Saving and loading maps is part of world tracking. World tracking gives you position and orientation of your device as our six degrees of freedom pose in real world. This lets you place objects in the scene such as this table and chair you can see in this video. World tracking also gives you accurate physical scale so you can place your objects up to the correct scale. So your objects don't look too big or too small.
This can also be used to implement accurate measurements, such as the Measure app we saw yesterday. World tracking also gives you 3D feature points so you can, you can, you know some physical structure of the environment, and this can be used to perform hit testing to place objects in the scene. In iOS 11.3, we introduced relocalization. This feature lets you restore your tracking state after AR session was interrupted. So this could happen, for example, your app is backgrounded or you're using picture in picture mode on iPad. So relocalization works with a map that is continuously built by world tracking. So the more we move around the environment, the more it is able to extend and learn about different features of the environment.
So this map was only available as long as your AR session was alive, but not we are giving this map available to you. In ARKit API, this map is given to you as ARWorldMap object.
ARWorldMap represents mapping of physical 3D space, similar to what we see in this, on the visual, on the right. We also know that anchors are important points in physical space. So these are the places where you want to place your virtual objects. So we have also included plain anchors by default in ARWorldMap. Moreover, you can also add your custom anchors to this list since it is mutable list. So you can create your custom anchors in the scene and add them to World Map.
For your visualization and debugging, World Map also give you raw feature points and extend, so you know the real physical space you just scanned. More importantly, World Map is a serializable object, so it can be serialized to any data stream of your choice, such as file on local system or to a shared network place.
So this ARWorldMap object enable two powerful set of new experiences in ARKit. The first is persistence.
So just to show you an example how it works, we have a user starting world tracking, and he places an object in the scene through ARKit hit testing. And before leaves the scene, he will save World Map on the device.
So some point, sometime later, the user comes back, and he is able to load the same World Map, and he will find the same augmented reality experience. So he can repeat this experience as many times he wants, and he will find these objects on the table every time he will start his experience. So this is persistence in world tracking . Thank you. ARWorldMap also enables multiuser experiences.
Now your augmented reality experience is not limited to a single device or single user.
It can be shared with many users.
One user can create World Map and share with one or more users. Note that World Map represents a single coordinate system in real world. So what it means that every user will share the same working space. They are able to experience the same augmented reality experience from different point of view. So this is a great new feature. You can use World Map to enable multiuser games, such as the one we saw yesterday. We can also use ARWorldMap to create multiuser shared educational experiences.
Note that we are giving ARWorldMap object in your hands, so you are free to choose any technology to share with every user.
For example, for sharing you can use air drop or multipeer connectivity that relies on local Bluetooth or WiFi connection. So it means that you don't really need an internet connection for this feature to work.
:15 So let's see how ARKit API makes it very easy for you to retrieve and load World Map.
On your AR session object, you will need to call get current world map at any point in time. This method comes with a completion handler in which it will return you and ARWorldMap object. Note also that it can also return and other in case World Map is not available. So it's important to handle this error in your application code.
So once you have ARWorldMap, you can simply set initial World Map property in world tracking configuration and run your session. Note that this can be dynamically changed as well, so you can also reconfigure AR session by running a new configuration. So once AR session is started with ARWorldMap, it will follow the exact same behavior of relocalization that we introduced in iOS 11.3.
It is important for your experience that relocalization works reliably. So it is good to, it is important to acquire good World Maps. Note that you can call get a current world map at any point in time. So, it's important to scan your physical space from multiple point of views. So tracking system can really learn about physical structure of the environment.
The environment should be static and well textured so we can learn, extract more features of it and learn more about the environment.
And also, it's important to have dense feature points on the map, so it can reliably relocalize.
But you don't have to worry about all those points.
In ARKit, API really makes things easier for you by giving you WorldMappingStatus on ARFrame.
WorldMappingStatus is updated in every ARFrame and can be retrieved by WorldMappingStatus property. So let's see how this works. So when we start world tracking, WorldMappingStatus will be not available. As soon as we start scanning the physical space, it will be limited.
The more we move in the physical world, world tracking will continue to extend the map. And if we have scanned enough physical world from current point of view, WorldMappingStatus will be mapped.
So note that if you point away from a map physical space, WorldMappingStatus may go back to limited. So it will start to learn more about the new environment that we are starting to see. So how you can use WorldMappingStatus in your application code. Let's say you have an app that lets you share your World Map with another user, and you have a shared map button on your user interface. It's a good practice to disable this button when WorldMappingStatus is not available or limited. And when WorldMappingStatus is extending, you may want to show an activity indicator on UI. So this encourages your end user to continue moving in the physical world and continue scanning it and extending the map, because you need that for relocalization.
Once WorldMappingStatus is fully mapped, you may enable your share map button and hide your activity indicator. So this will let your user to share the map.
So let's see a demo of saving and loading World Map.
Okay. So can we switch to AR 1.
Okay. So for this demo, I have two apps. In one app I will retrieve and save World Map to a local file, and in my second app, I will load the same World Map to restore the same augmented reality experience. So let's start. So as you can see, WorldMappingStatus on top right corner. It was not available. As soon as I start to move in the environment, it is now extending my World Map. So if I continue to map and move in this environment, the WorldMappingStatus will go mapped.
So it means that it has seen enough features from this point of view for relocalization to work. So it is a good time to retrieve and serialize World Map object.
But let's make this augmented reality scene more interesting by placing a custom anchor. So through hit testing, I have created a custom anchor, and I am overlaying this object, basically it's a old TV. I think most of you may have seen in the past.
So of course I can still continue mapping the world, and let's save the World Map. So when I saved my World Map, I could also show raw feature points that belongs to this World Map. So those blue dots that you see, they are all part of my World Map.
And also as a good practice, I saved a screen shot of my point of view where I saved World Map.
So now we have serialized World Map to our file. We can now restore the same augmented reality experience in another app. So let's try that. I will start this app from a different position, and you can see this is my world origin. It is defined on this side of the table, and my world tracking is now in relocalizing state. So this is the same opening relocalization behavior that we introduced in iOS 11.3. So let me point my device to the physical place where I created World Map. So as soon as I point to that same space, it restored my world origin back to where it was, and at the same time it also restored my custom anchor. So I have the exact same AR experience. Thank you.
So now note that I can start this app as many times I want, and it will show me the same experience every time I start. So this is persistence. And of course, this can be shared with another device. So back to slides.
So this was saving and loading map. It's a powerful new feature in ARKit 2 that enables persistence and multiuser shared experiences.
In ARKit 2, we have faster initialization and plane detection. World tracking is now more robust, and we can detect planes in more difficult environments.
Both horizontal and vertical planes have more accurate extent and boundaries, so it means that you can accurately place your objects in the scene.
In iOS 11.3, we introduced continuous autofocus for your augmented reality experiences. IOS 12 comes with even more optimizations specifically for augmented reality experiences.
We are also introducing 4 by 3 video formats in ARKit. Four by three is a -angle video format that greatly enhances your visualization on iPad because iPad also have 4 by 3 display aspect ratios. Note that 4 by 3 video format will be the default video format in ARKit 2. So all of these enhancements, they will be applied to all existing apps in the App Store except 4 by 3 video format. For that, you will have to build your app with the new STK.
So coming back to improving end-user experience, we are introducing environment texturing. So this greatly enhances your rendering for end-user experiences.
So let's say your designer have worked really hard to create these virtual objects for you, for your augmented reality scene. This looks really great, but you need to do more for your augmented reality scene. You need to have position and orientation correct in your AR scene so that object really looks like it is placed in the real world.
It is also important to get the scale right so your object is not too big or not too small. So ARKit helps you by giving you the correct transform in world tracking.
For realistic rendering, it is important to also consider lighting in the environment. ARKit gives you ambient light estimator that you can use in your rendering to correct the brightness of your objects. So your objects don't look too bright or too dark. They just blend into the environment. If you are placing your objects on physical surfaces such as horizontal planes, it is also important to add a shadow for the object. So this greatly improves human visual perception. They can really perceive that objection is on the surface. And last, in case of reflective objects, humans wants to see reflection of the environment from the surface of the virtual objects.
So this is what environment texturing enables. So let's see how this object looks like in an augmented reality scene. So I created this scene yesterday evening when I was preparing for this presentation. So while eating those fruits, I also wanted to place this virtual object. And you can see, it is correct to scale, and you can see more importantly you can see a reflection of the environment in the object. On your right side of this object, you can see this yellow and orange reflection of those fruits on the right, and on the left, you can notice the green texture from the leaves.
And in the middle, you can also see reflection of the surface of the bench. So this is enabled by environment texturing in ARKit 2.
Thank you. So environment texturing gathers scene texture information.
Usually it is represented as a cube map, but there are other representations as well. Environment texture or this cube map can be used as a reflection probe in your rendering engines.
This reflection probe can apply this as texture information onto virtual objects, such as the one we saw in the last slide. So it greatly improves visualization of reflective objects.
So let's see how this works in this short video clip.
So ARKit, while running world tracking and scene understanding, continues to learn more about the environment.
Using computer vision, it can extract textured information and start to fill this cube map. And this cube map is accurately placed in the scene. Note that this cube map is partially filled, and to set up reflection probes, we need to have a fully completed cube map. To have a fully completed cube map, you will need to scan your full physical space, something like a 360-degree scan you do with your panoramas.
But this is not practical for end-users.
So ARKit makes it very easy for you by automatically completing this cube map using advanced machine learning algorithms.
Note also that all of this processing happens locally on your device in real-time.
So once we have a cube map, we can set up reflection probe and as soon as we place virtual objects in the scene, they start to reflect the real environment. So this was a quick overview of how this environment texturing process works. Let's see how ARKit API makes it very easy for you to enable this feature. So all you have to do in your world tracking configuration to set environment texturing property to automatic and run the session. So this is as simple as this.
AR session will automatically run this environment texturing process in the background and will give you environment texture as an environment probe anchor.
AREnvironmentProbeAnchor is an extension of AR anchor, so it means it has a six degrees of freedom position and orientation transform.
Moreover, it has a cube map in the form of metal texture. ARKit also gives you physical extent of the cube map. So this is area of the influence of the reflection probe, and it can be used by rendering agents to correct for parallels. So such as in case your object is moving in the scene, it will automatically adapt to new position and new texture will be reflected in the environment. Note that this follows same lifecycle as every other anchor such as AR plane anchor or AR image anchor.
Furthermore, it is fully integrated into ARSCNView. So in case you are using SceneKit as your rendering technology, you just need to enable this feature in world tracking configuration. The rest is done automatically by ARSCNView.
Note that for advanced use cases, you may want to place environment probe anchors manually in the scene. So for this, you will need to set environment texturing mode to manual, and then you can create environment probe anchors at your desired position and orientation and add them to AR session object. Note that this only enables you to place the probe anchors in the scene. AR session will automatically update its texture as soon as it gets more information about the environment.
So you may use this mode in case your augmented reality scene has a single object. You don't want to overload system with too many environment probe anchors. So let's see a quick demo of environment texturing and see how we can realistically render augmented reality scene. So we can switch to AR 1.
Okay. So for this demo, I am running world tracking configuration without environment texturing feature enabled.
So as you can see on the bottom switch controller, it's just using ambient light estimate. And let's place the same object that we have seen before.
And you can see it is, it looks okay. I mean you can see this on the table. You can see the shadow of it, and it looks like a really good AR scene.
But what we are missing is that it does not reflect wooden surface of the table. So moreover, if I place something in the scene such as real fruit, we don't see a reflection of it in the virtual object. So let's enable environment texturing and see how it can realistically represent this texture. So as you can see, as soon as I enable environment texturing, the object started to reflect the wooden surface of the table as well as the texture from this banana.
So this greatly enhances you augmented reality scene. So it looks as real as possible, as if it is really on the table. Okay. Back to slides.
So this was environment texturing. It's a powerful new feature in ARKit 2 that lets you create your augmented reality scene as realistic as possible. Now, to continue with the rest of the great new features, I will invite Reinhard on stage.
It's working? Oh, okay, great.
Good morning. My name is Reinhard, and I'm an engineer on the ARKit team. So next let's talk about image tracking. In iOS 11.3, we introduced image detection as part of world tracking. Image detection searches for known 2D images in the scene. The term detection here implies that these images are static and are therefore not supposed to move. Great examples for such images could be movie posters or paintings in a museum.
ARKit will estimate the position and orientation of such an image in six degrees of freedom once an image has been detected. This pose can be used to trigger content in your rendered scene. As I mentioned earlier, all this is fully integrated world tracking. So all you need to do is set once in your property to set it up. In order to load images to be used for image detection, you made load them from file or use Xcode's asset catalog, which also gives you the detection quality for an image.
So image detection is already great, but now in iOS 12, we can do better. So let's talk about image tracking. Image tracking is an extension to image detection with a big advantage that images no longer need to be static and may move. ARKit will now estimate the position and orientation for every frame at 60 frames per second. This allows you to accurately augment 2D images, say magazines, board games, or pretty much anything that features a real image.
And ARKit can also track multiple images simultaneously.
By default it only selects 1, but in cases, for example, the cover of a magazine, you may want to keep this set to 1, or in case of a double-page magazine inside a magazine, you want to set this to 2.
And in ARKit 2 on iOS 12, we have a brand-new configuration called the AR Image Tracking Configuration that lets you do stand-alone image tracking. So let's see how to set it up.
We start by loading a set of reference images, either from file or from the asset catalog.
Once I'm done loading such a set of reference images, I use this to set up my session that can be of type world tracking by specifying its detection images property or of type ARImageTrackingConfiguration by specifying the tracking images one.
Once I'm done setting up my configuration, I use this to run my session.
And just as usual, once the session is running, I'll get an ARFrame at every update. And such and ARFrame will continue an object of type ARImageAnchor, once an image has been detected. Such an ARImageAnchor is now a trackable object. I can see this by conforming to the AR trackable protocol. This means it comes as a boolean isTracked, which informs you about the tracking state of the image. It's true if it's tracked and false otherwise.
It also informs about which image has been detected and where it is by giving me it's position and orientation as a 4 by 4 matrix.
So in order to get such image anchors, it all starts by loading images. So that's good. Let's have a look at what good images could be. This image here could be found in a book for children, and in fact, it works great for image tracking. It has a lot of distinct visual features. It's we'll textured and shows really good contrast.
On the other hand, an image like this, which could also be found in a textbook for kids, is not recommended. It has a lot of repetitive structures, uniform color regions, and a pretty narrow histogram once converted to gray scale.
But you don't have to identify these statistics yourself as Xcode is here to help. So if I import these two images to Xcode, I see the sea life one without any warning, which means it's recommended, and the one about the three kids reading showing a warning icon, meaning it's not recommended.
If I click this icon, I get a precise description why this image is not recommended to use image tracking. I get information about the histogram, uniform color regions, as well as the histogram.
So once I'm done loading images, I'm left with two choices of configurations. First one is ARWorldTrackingConfiguration. So let's talk about that. When we use image tracking with world tracking, image anchors are represented in a world coordinates system. This means that image anchors optionally plane anchors.
The camera and the world origin itself all appear in the same coordinate system. This makes their interaction very easy and intuitive, and what's new in iOS 12 now images that could previously only be detected can now be tracked. And we have a new configuration, the ARImageTrackingConfiguration, which performs stand-alone image tracking.
This means it's independent from world tracking and does not rely on the motion sensor to perform the tracking. This means this configuration is not to initialize before it starts to identify images and could also succeed in scenarios in which world tracking fails, such as moving platform like an elevator or a train.
I think in this case ARKit would estimate the position and orientation for every frame at 60 frames per second. And implementing this can be done in four simple lines of code. So all you need to do, I create a configuration type ARImageTrackingConfiguration and specify a set of images I'd like to track. In this case, I specified a photo of a cat, a dog, and a bird.
I tell the configuration how many images I'd like to track. In this case, I specified this to be 2. In my use case, I imagined only 2 images will interact but not 3 at the same time. Note that if I'm tracking 2 images and a third comes into its view, it won't be tracked, but it will still get a detection update.
And then I use this configuration to run my session. And as I mentioned earlier, you can also do this using world tracking by simply switching out these two lines. The only difference between image detection and tracking is the maximum number of tracking images. So if you have an app that uses image detection, you could simply add this, recompile, and your app may use tracking.
So in order to show you how easy this really is, let's do a demo in Xcode.
Can we go to AR 2? Yes. So for this demo I'd like to build a AR photo frame, and for this, I brought a photo of my cat from home. So let's build this using Xcode. So I started by creating a iOS app template using Xcode. As you can see by now it's pretty empty. Next, I need to specify which image I'd like to attach. For this I imported the photo of my cat, Daisy. Let's open her up here. That's my cat. I need to specify a name. I give it the name Daisy, which is the name of my cat, and I specify here the physical width of the image found in the real world, which is my photo frame.
I also loaded a movie of my cat. So let's bring this all together. First, I will create a configuration, which will be a configuration of type ARImageTrackingConfiguration. I load a set of tracking images from the asset catalog by using the group name photos. This will contain only one image, which is the photo of my cat, Daisy.
Next, I set up the configuration image tracking by specifying the tracking images property here, and I specify the max number of tracked images that we want. At this point, the app will already start an AR session and provide you with image anchors once an image has been detected. But let's add some content. I will load the video by trading a AV player from the video by loading it from the resource panel.
Now let's add it on top of the real image. So for this, I'm checking whether the anchor is of type image anchor, and I create an SCN plane having the same physical dimension as the image found in the scene.
I assign the video player as the texture to my plane, and I start playing my video player. I create an SCN note from geometry, and I counter rotate to match the anchor's coordinate system. So that's it. This will run. Let's see it live.
So once I bring the frame of my cat into the camera's view, the video starts playing, and I can see my cat interact. Since ARKit estimates position in real-time, I can move my device freely, or I can move the object. So I can really see that there's an update at every frame. Oh, oh, she just left. I guess it's the end of the demo, let's go back to the slides.
So as you can see, it's really easy to use image tracking in ARKit. In fact, it's much harder to make a video of your cat.
So image tracking is great at interacting with 2D objects, but we're not limited to plainer 2D objects, so let's talk next about object detection. Object detection can be used to detect known 3D objects in the scene.
Just like image detection here, the term detection means that this object needs to be static and can therefore, or should therefore not move.
Great examples of such objects could be exhibits in a museum, certain toys, or household items.
And like image detection, objects need to be scanned first using an iOS app running ARKit. For this we offered the full source code of a full-featured iOS app that allows you to scan your own 3D objects. Such objects have a few properties such that they need to be well textured, rigid, and nonreflective. And they need to have roughly the size of a tabletop. ARKit can be used to estimate the position and orientation of such objects in six degrees of freedom. And all of this is fully integrated into world tracking. So all you need to do is set one single property to get started with object detection. So let's have a look how it can be set up. I load a set of AR reference images from file or from Xcode asset catalog. I will talk about the reference objects in a second. Once I'm done loading these reference objects, I used them to set up my configuration of type ARWorldTrackingConfiguration by specifying the detection objects property. When I'm done setting up my configuration, again I run my session with it. And just as image detection, once the AR session is running, I get an ARFrame with every update, and in this case, once an object has been detected in the scene, I will find an AR object anchor as part of my AR frame.
Such an AR object is a simple subclass of AR anchor. So it comes with a transform, which represents its position and orientation and six degrees of freedom as well as it tells me which objects has been detected by giving me a reference to the AR reference object.
And implementing this can be done with three simple lines of code. I create a configuration of type ARWorldTrackingConfiguration and specify a set of objects I'd like to detect. In this case, I envision to build a simple AR museum app by detecting an ancient bust and a clay pot. And I use this to run my session.
So in fact, at the office, we build a very simple AR museum app, so let's have a look. So once this bust gets into view of my iOS app, I get a six degrees of freedom pose and can use this to show the scene, very simple infographics floating about the statue. In this case, we have simply added date of birth, the name of this Egyptian queen, which was Nefertiti, but you could add any content that your rendering engine allows you to use. In order to build this app, I had to scan the object first. So let's talk about object scanning. Object scanning extracts accumulated scene information from the world. This is very much related to plane estimation in which we use accumulated scene information to estimate the position of a horizontal or vertical plane. In this case, we use this information to gather information about the 3D object. In order to specify which area to look for the object, I just specify a transform and extend in the center. This is essentially a bounding box around the object just to define where it is in the scene. Extracted objects are fully supported by Xcode's asset catalog, so it makes it really easy to port them to a new app and reuse them as many times as you want.
And for scanning, we added a new configuration, the ARObjectScanningConfiguration.
But you do not need to go ahead and implement your own scanning app as the full sample code is available for full-featured scanning app called Scanning and Detecting 3D Objects.
So let's have a look how this app works. I start by creating a bounding box around the object of interest, in this case, the statue of Nefertiti. Note that the bounding box does not need to be really strict around the object. All we care is that the most important feature points are within its bounds.
When I'm satisfied with the bounding box, I can click press scan, and we start scanning the object. I can see the progress going up and this tile representation indicating how much of the object has been scanned in a spatial manner.
Note that you do not have to scan the object from all sides. For example, if you know that a statue will be facing a wall in a museum, and there is no way that you could detect it from one specific viewpoint, you do not need to scan it from that side. Once you're satisfied with the scan, you can adjust the center of the extent which corresponds to the origin of the object. The only requirement here is that the center stays within the object's extent. And lastly, the scanning app lets you perform detection tests. So in this case, detection was successful from various viewpoints, which means it's a good scan.
And our recommendation here is also to move the object to different location to test whether detection works with different texture and under different lighting conditions.
Once you're done scanning, you will obtain an object of type ARReferenceObject, which we have seen earlier in the diagram. This object can be serialized to usually and AR object file extension type. It has a name, which will also be visible in your asset catalog as well as the center and the extent used for scanning it. And you will also get all the raw feature points found within the area when you performed your scan.
So this was object detection. Keep in mind, before detection object, you need to scan them, but there is the full source code available for you to download it right now. So let's talk next about face tracking.
When we released the iPhone X last year, we added robust face detection and tracking to ARKit. Here, ARKit estimates the position and orientation of a face for every frame at 60 frames per second. Here we can use the, this pose can be used to augment a user's face by adding masks, hats, or replace the full texture of a face. ARKit also provides you with a fitted triangle mesh coming to form of the ARFaceGeometry. This type, the ARFaceGeometry, contains all the information needed to render this facial mesh, and it comes in the form of all vertices, triangles, as well as detection coordinates.
The main anchor type of face tracking is ARFaceAnchor, which contains all information needed to perform face tracking.
And in order to render such geometry realistically, we added a directional light estimate. Here, ARKit uses your light as a light probe and estimates this ARDirectionLightEstimate, which consists of the light intensity, direction, as well as the color temperature. This estimate will be sufficient to make most apps already look great, but if your app has more sophisticated needs, we also provide the second-degree spherical harmonics coefficients that gather lighting conditions throughout the entire scene for you to make your content even look better. And ARKit can also track expressions in real-time. These expressions are so-called blend shapes, and there's 50 or more of them.
Such a blend shape assume a value between 0 and 1. One means there's full activation. Zero means there is none. For example, the jaw open coefficient will assume a value close to 1 if I open my mouth and a value close to 0 if I close it. And this is great to animate your own virtual character. This example here, I've used the jaw open and eye blink left and eye blink right to animate this really simple box face character.
But it can do better than that. In fact, when we built Animoji, we used a handful more of such blend shapes. So all the blue bars you see moving here were used to get over the head post to map my facial expressions on the panda bear.
Note that ARKit offers everything needed for you to animate your own character just like we did with Animoji. Thank you.
So let's see what's new for face tracking in ARKit 2. We added gaze tracking that will track the left and the right eye both in six degrees of freedom.
You will find these properties as members of ARFaceAnchor as well as a look-at point, this corresponds to reintersection of the two gaze directions. You may use this information to animate again your own character or of any other form of input to your app. And there's more.
We added support for tongue, which comes in the form of a new blend shape. This blend shape will assume a value of 1 if my tongue is out 0 if not. Again, you could use this to animate your own character or use this as a form of input to your app.
Thank you. So seeing myself sticking my tongue out over and over is a good time for summary. So, what's new in ARKit 2. Let's have a look. We've seen saving and loading maps, which are powerful new features for persistence and multiuser collaboration.
World tracking enhancements simply shows better and fasting plane detection as well as new video formats. And with environment texturing, we can make the content really look as if it was really in the scene by gathering texture of the scene and applying it as a textured object.
And with image tracking, with image tracking, we are now able to track 2D objects in the form of images. But ARKit can also detect 3D objects. And for face tracking, we have gaze and tongue. All of this is made available for you in the form of the building blocks of ARKit. In iOS 12, ARKit features five different configurations with two new additions, the ARImageTrackingConfiguration for stand-alone image tracking and the ARObjectScanningConfiguration.
And there's a series of supplementary types used to interact with the AR session. The ARFrame, the ARCamera, for example.
And this got two new additions, the ARReferenceObject for object detection and the ARWorldMap for persistence and multiuser. And the AR anchors, which represent positions in the real world, the anchor types. Got two new additions, the ARObjectAnchor and the AREnvironmentProbeAnchor. I'm really excited to see what you guys will build with all these building blocks in the ARKit available in iOS 12 as of today.
There's another real cool session about integrating ARQuickLook into your own application to make your content look simply great.
With this, thanks a lot, and enjoy the rest of the conference.
[ Applause ]
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